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Table 1 Representative cases around the world

From: Comparative analysis of information tendency and application features for projection mapping technologies at cultural heritage sites

Time Case Percentage of PJM content related to the heritage Interaction probability Information conveyed in the target property Technology type
2014–2015 Osaka Castle
3D Mapping Super Illuminations
About 17%
(Among the six projects, only the building surface PJM is relevant.)
About 69% of building surface PJM)
Impossible In the project of building surface projection, about half of the lens represents the history of Osaka Castle, especially the exhibit of war, revival, or traditional patterns and totems Indoor exhibit PJM;
Building surface PJM;
Himeji Castle
1.About 54%
(More than half of the content of the 9-min video is related to historical stories.)
Impossible The designer explained the history of the heritage from four parts: “The Origin of Himeji Castle History,” “War,” “Decline” and “Modern Reconstruction and Re-prosperity.” When mentioning the construction of Himeji Castle, simple animations are used to show the modeling characteristics of heritage buildings Building surface PJM
100% Impossible The designer shown three thousand years of history to visitors through projections on the rocks. Including the structural information and war history of the heritage building Indoor exhibit PJM
2016 Karlsruhe Palace BADISCHES LANDESMUSEUM KARLSRUHE 100% Impossible The designer introduced the historical background of palaces and gardens from the perspective of the kings and city founders of the Baroque era Immersive PJM
2018.2.19–2.18 Tokushima Central Park
Kawa and Mori Light Art Festival
About 25%
(Among the four exhibition projects, only the indoor holographic projection is related to loco culture.)
Possible (25%)
Holographic projection: Approach
The designer made countless holograms combined with interactive digital installations to show visitors the traditional dance form of “Abo Dance.” Indoor exhibit PJM;
Holographic projection
2018.5.01–06 Aachen Cathedral 40th anniversary of being UNESCO World Heritage Site About 75%
(The 15-min scene in the 20-min video is related to the heritage itself.)
Impossible The designer exhibited the structural information of the building and the related history of each period on the building surface Building surface PJM
2018.9.1–10.31 Hirado Castle
Fantasy Festival of Light and Sound
About 67% of building surface PJM Possible (10%)
Holographic projection: Approach, Touch
The designer used the combination of music and video to describe the influence of the sea on the development of Hirado Castle. The projection on the surface of the building expresses the structure and previous shape of the heritage building Indoor exhibit PJM;
Building surface PJM;
Holographic projection
2018.12 Nagoya Castle NIGHT CASTLE
About 67% of building surface PJM
(About 3 min and 10 s related to the heritage of 4 min and 45 s video.)
Impossible The content of the projection shows people’s daily life in the history of Nagoya Castle. The historical and cultural patterns of the Tokugawa Soharu period are beautifully represented Building surface PJM
2019 Atturaif Living Museum About 59%
(About 148 s of scenes in the 4-min movie are related to the history of the Saudi Arabian dynasty.)
Impossible The designer made a 4-min movie and onto the exterior wall of the museum. Its content includes the history of the Saudi Arabia’s dynasties and the war from the fifteenth century Building surface PJM
2019.8.2–8.3 Okayama Castle Tenshukaku projection mapping About 86%
(In 6 min of animation, about 5 min mainly shown about modern development and the myth of Momotaro.)
Impossible The designer used the alias of Okayama Castle, “Golden Bird Castle” as the concept, and combined the historical background related to the heritage and the fairy tale “Momotaro” and performed it Building surface PJM
2019 Festung Xperience
Dresden fortress
100% Possible(50%)
Interactive screen:
Approach, touch
Indoor wall and floor: close
The designer used sound interactive projection to express the history of the fortress, including the reasons for the construction of that era, and the functions of the fortress itself Immersive PJM; Interactive screen
2019 Lantern Festival light show
Beijing Desheng gate
About 60%
(In the 5-min movie, the first 3 min are related to the introduction of traditional Chinese opera and lantern.)
Impossible The building surface projection includes the exhibit of traditional Chinese Peking opera and traditional lighting fixtures, especially introductory to the Chinese traditional lanterns Building surface PJM
2020.2.12–15 Kashima Shrine
Japan Culture EXPO in Kashima
About 80%
(About 4 min of the 10-min animation is related to architectural modeling and development.)
Impossible The designer used the combination of music and video to well show the shape and structure of the shrine, and showed many myths and stories related to it Building surface PJM