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Table 2 Summary of the results obtained from all the techniques applied to each mummy textile wrapping/sample

From: A multi-scalar investigation of the colouring materials used in textile wrappings of Egyptian votive animal mummies

Accession number Label Areas of interest/samplesa MSI FORS Vis-OM UV-OM SEM EDX HPLC-ESI-Q-ToF
EA 6756 C1 Pink from protected area, (covered by the brown criss-cross strips) UVL—orange luminescence
IRRFC—yellow (faint)
UVRFC—brown (faint)
Indicative of safflower
Safflower Pink/orange non-homogeneous colouration Intense orange luminescence of a few areas Almost intact fibres, reduced processing, presence of particles Ca and Cl as most abundant elements Safflower
Brown from criss-cross strips UVL—strongly absorbing
IRRFC—dull orange
UVRFC—dark greenish brown
Indicative of tannins
Non-homogeneous brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Brittle fibres, transversal cracks, advanced processing, presence of particles Si, Al, and Fe present in particles Hydrolysable tannins
EA 65502 C2 Red from stripy wrappings UVL—weak pinkish luminescence
IRRFC—yellow
UVRFC—brown
May suggest madder
Not conclusive Relatively homogeneous light red colouration and presence of agglomerates Weak pinkish luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) and reddish luminescence from agglomerates Well-preserved fibres, intermediate processing, scarce particles General low concentration of elements No dye detected
Painted pink areas of the face and ears UVL—Strongly absorbing
Indicative of red ochre
Red ochre   
EA 55614 C3 Red from diamond pattern UVL—weak pinkish luminescence
IRRFC—yellow
UVRFC—brown
May suggest madder
Not conclusive Relatively homogeneous light red colouration Weak pinkish luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Well-preserved fibres, intermediate processing Si, Al, and Fe present in particles No dye detected
Brown from diamond pattern UVL—strongly absorbing
IRRFC—deep orange/red
UVRFC—dark brown
Indicative of tannins
Relatively homogeneous brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, abundant transversal cracks Si, Al, and Fe present in particles, Ca generally present Condensed tannins (?)
Cat. 2348/1 C4 Pink from banded net pattern Homogeneous yellowish colouration Non-homogeneous yellowish luminescence of a few areas Well-preserved fibres, a few tangential cracks Si, Al, and Fe present in a few particles No results
Brown from the neck area   Relatively homogeneous brown colouration General absorbance of the UV radiation and presence of UV-absorbing particles/areas Abundant presence of particles with different shapes Na and Cl abundant in crystals; Si, Al and Fe abundant in other particles Hydrolysable tannins
Cat. 2349/3 C5 Pink from internal meander pattern Safflower Pink/orange non-homogeneous colouration and presence of coloured particles/agglomerates Intense orange luminescence of a few areas and of the particles/agglomerates
Brown from meander pattern   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation
Dark brown from meander pattern   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation
EA 52926 I1 Reddish from herringbone pattern Featureless Relatively homogeneous light red colouration Non-homogeneous yellowish luminescence of a few areas Well-preserved fibres, intermediate processing Si, Al, and Fe present in particles No results
Brown from herringbone pattern   Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, few particles Si, Al, and Fe present in particles Hydrolysable tannins
EA 53938 I2 Black from coffer diagonal pattern Relatively homogeneous very dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, abundant transversal cracks Si, Al, and Fe present in particles, Fe abundantly present in clear areas Hydrolysable and condensed tannins
S. 11013 I3 Dark brown from herringbone pattern Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous very dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation and yellowish luminescence of a few areas Advanced degradation, transversal and tangential cracks, abundant elongated crystals Na, Ca, S abundant in crystals (but no Cl); Si, Al and Fe present in other particles Hydrolysable tannins and degradation products
S. 11018 I4 Pink from a protected area (covered by other strips) Possible safflower Non-homogeneous light pink colouration Homogeneous weak orange luminescence Intermediate degradation, presence of particles Si, Al, and Fe in some particles, Ca in other ones Safflower
Dark brown from herringbone pattern   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, transversal cracks Fe presents in both particles (with Al and Si) and clear areas Hydrolysable tannins
S. 11,033 I5 Dark brown from herringbone pattern Possible tannins Non-homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation and yellowish luminescence of a few areas Very advanced degradation state, presence of coating material Na and Cl in some crystals; Si, Al, Ca, S and Fe also present Hydrolysable and condensed tannins
S. 11037 I6 Dark brown from double sided coffer pattern Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Brittleness, transversal cracks, abundant presence of particles Presence of Na-rich, Si-rich and Fe-rich particles Hydrolysable tannins and degradation products
EA 35727 Cr1 Yellowish from square pattern Non-homogeneous yellowish colouration Weak pinkish luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Relatively good preservation state, reduced processing General presence of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, Cl, K and Ca No results
Light brown from square pattern   Non-homogeneous brown colouration General absorbance of the UV radiation and presence of UV-absorbing particles/areas (including “knee-joints”) Brittleness, a few transversal cracks, reduced processing General low abundance of common elements, with Fe present everywhere Hydrolysable tannins
Dark brown from face   Non-homogeneous brown colouration General absorbance of the UV radiation and presence of UV-absorbing particles/areas (including “knee-joints”) Advanced brittleness, transversal cracks, abundant particles Big particles rich in Al and Si; Fe generally present Hydrolysable tannins
EA 35728 Cr2 Red UVL–strongly absorbing
Indicative of red ochre
Red ochre Non-homogeneous red/pink colouration Non-homogeneous fine dispersion of UV-absorbing particles Fibres coated with a fine dispersion of particles All common elements present; Fe and Si abundant; presence of Ag impurities No results
Cat. 2351/2 Cr3 Black from protected area (covered by other strips) Possible tannins Homogeneous black colouration and presence of particles Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation accompanied by some luminescence of non-fibrous plant material Fibres covered by non-fibrous plant materials and abundant particles All common elements present; Na, Fe and Si abundant; Fe present in clear areas Hydrolysable and condensed tannins
Cat. 2353/11 Cr4 Light brown Featureless Relatively homogeneous light brown colouration Weak orange/pinkish luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Brittleness, presence of cracks, abundant particles, reduced processing Particles rich in Fe, Al and Si; clear areas with few elements No results
Dark brown   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration and presence of particles Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation accompanied by some luminescence of non-fibrous plant material Advanced brittleness, presence of cracks, abundant particles, very reduced processing Particles rich in Fe, Al and Si; clear areas also rich in Fe Hydrolysable tannins and degradation products
Provv. 1443 Cr5 Light brown Homogeneous yellowish colouration Very weak yellow/orange luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Relatively good preservation, few cracks and particles General elements present with low concentration No results
Black   Relatively homogeneous black colouration and presence of particles Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, transversal and tangential cracks, reduced processing, abundant particles General elements present in both particles and clear areas Hydrolysable and condensed tannins
EA 6773 Ca1 Light brown from face Relatively homogeneous light brown colouration General absorbance of the UV radiation and presence of UV-absorbing particles/areas (including “knee-joints”) Brittleness, transversal cracks, reduced processing, some particles Particles rich in Si and Al; general elements present in clear areas, but no Fe Hydrolysable tannins
Dark brown from face   Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, numerous cracks, some particles Ca, Si, Al and Fe abundantly present in particles; Fe also present in clear areas Hydrolysable tannins
Cat. 2344 Ca2 Light orange from polychrome double sided coffer pattern Featureless Relatively homogeneous light orange colouration Weak yellow/orange luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Advanced brittleness, transversal cracks, some particles Some particles rich in S, K and Ca; other particles rich in Si and Al No results
Brown from polychrome double sided coffer pattern   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation Advanced brittleness, transversal cracks, reduced processing, abundant particles General elements present in particles; Fe also present in clear areas Hydrolysable tannins
EA 90471 F1 Yellow from external pattern UVL–faint yellow luminescence
May indicate yellow dye source
Relatively homogeneous yellowish colouration Weak yellow/orange luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Relatively good preservation, reduced processing, few particles Some particles rich in S, K and Ca No results
Red from internal square pattern UVL–orange luminescence
IRRFC—yellow (faint)
UVRFC—brown (faint)
Indicative of safflower
Possible safflower Relatively homogeneous reddish colouration Orange luminescence (especially from “knee-joints”) Relatively good preservation, reduced processing, fungal spores and hyphae Some particles rich in S, K and Ca; other particles rich in Si and Al Safflower
Brown from internal square pattern UVL–strongly absorbing
IRRFC—deep orange/red
UVRFC—dark brown
Indicative of tannins
Non-homogeneous brown colouration and presence of light brown non-fibrous material Absorbance of the UV radiation on fibres and dark orange luminescence from non-fibrous material Advanced degradation, abundant fungal hyphae and spores, very reduced processing Some particles rich in S, K and Ca; general elements present at low concentration Hydrolysable tannins
S. 11040 F2 Orange from internal strips Featureless Relatively homogeneous light orange colouration Very weak yellow/orange luminescence from the fibres (especially “knee-joints”) Relatively good preservation, some transversal cracks, few particles General elements present in particles, but not in clear areas No results
Dark brown from protected area   Possible tannins Relatively homogeneous dark brown colouration Prevalent absorbance of the UV radiation and presence of UV-absorbing particles/areas (including “knee-joints”) Transversal cracks, reduced processing, presence of particles Some particles rich in S, K and Ca; other particles rich in Si and Al; Fe generally low Hydrolysable tannins and degradation products
  1. aColours as observed on the mummy wrappings. These were often difficult to define and are likely to differ from their original shades