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Table 1 Historical references (1550–1724) to the use of charcoal and black stone in drawing and paintings, and to the binder and structure of intermediate layers in panel paintings with white or off-white grounds

From: Charcoal or black stone? Reconstructions as a tool to study the behaviour of dry underdrawing materials within the paint structure of sixteenth century panel paintings

Historical sources Drawing media Binder of intermediate layers Position of the under-drawing Bibliographic sources
Author Date Title Charcoal Black stone Isolation Imprimatura
On paper Over prepared panel On paper Over prepared panel
G. Vasari Firenze 1550 Le vite de’ più eccellenti architetti, pittori et scultori italiani, (…) Drawing transfer 5 coats: sizea (applied with a sponge) Over the size 1 layer: no reference to binder Over the imprimatura Maclehose 1960 (English transl.) (Original version)
G. B. Armenini Ravenna 1586 De’ veri precetti della pittura Olszewski 1974 (English transl.)
Anonymous (Spanish) End of sixteenth century Reglas para pintar Transfer Bruquetas-Galán 1988 (Original version, transc.; Manuscript in Santiago de Compostela)
K. Van Mander Haarlem 1604 Het Schilder-Boeck 1 layer: no reference to binder Under the imprimaturab Noldus 2008 (French translation) Davaco Publ. 1969 (Original version, transcr.)
F. Nunes Lisboa 1615 Arte Poetica, e da Pintura, e Symmetria, e Perspectiva 1 layer: oil with its drier Over the imprimatura Ventura 1982 (Original version)
V. Carducho 1633 Diálogos de la Pintura, su defensa, origen, essência, definicion, modos y diferencias 1 layer: no reference to binder Veliz 1986 (English transl.)
P. Le Brun 1635 Recueil des essaies des merveilles de la Peinture Merrifield (1849) 1999 (Original version, transcr.  +  English transl.; Manuscript in Brussels)
Anonymous (Portuguese Monk of the Order of Christ) < 1640 Breve Tratado de iluminação 2 layers: no reference to binder Over the imprimatura Monteiro and Cruz 2010 (Original version, transcr.)
T. T. de Mayerne Lyon 1620–46 Pictoria Sculptoria and quæ subalternarum artium c 1 layer: no reference to binder Fels 2001 (English transl.)
F. Pacheco Sevilla 1649 Arte de la pintura: su antiguedad (…) 1 layer: linseed oil Over the imprimatura Hugas 2009 (Original version, transcr.)
Anonymous (Spanish) c. 1656 Tractado del Arte Veliz 1986 (English transl.)
G. B. Volpato > 1670 Modo da Tener nel Dipinger Merrifield (1849) 1999 (Original version, transcr.  +  English transl.; Manuscript in Bassano)
A. Félibien Paris 1676 Des Principes de l’Architecture, de la Sculpture, de la Peinture, et des autres arts (…) 1 layer: oil (Original version)
J-H De La Fontaine Paris 1679 L’Academie de la Peinture Sizing twice or … … 1 layer: oil Massing 1998 (Original version, transcr.)
F. Baldinucci Firenze 1681 Vocabolario Toscano dell’Arte del Disegno (…) (Original version)
R. de Piles Paris 1684 Les Premiers Elements de la Peinture (…) (Original version)
H. Gautier De Nismes Lyon 1687 L’Art de Laver, ou la Nouvelle Maniere de Peindre sur le Papier (…) (2nd ed. Bruxelles, 1708)
J. G. Hidalgo Madrid 1693 Principios para estudiar el nobilisimo y real Arte de la Pintura Veliz 1986 (English transl.)
T. Corneille Paris 1694 Dictionnaire Universel des Termes des Arts et des Sciences (2 vols.) (Original version)
B. D. du Grez Toulouse 1699 Traité sur la Peinture pour en apprendre la Teorie, & se perfectionner (…) (Original version)
A. Palomyno Y Velasco Madrid 1715–24 El museo pictórico y la escala óptica (Books V, VII and IX) 1 layer: size Over the size 1 or 2 layers: no reference to binder  Veliz 1986 (English transl.)
  1. Data presented in this table refers exclusively to the practice of drawing on paper (including cartoons) and oil painting on panel with an aqueous ground. In these texts, charcoal and black stone are also mentioned as pigments or drawing materials in other artworks such as drawing on parchment, illuminating manuscripts, fresco painting, tempera painting, masonry, carpentry, etc., but these references were not included in the table as they are not relevant to the subject of this investigation
  2. The data was gathered as part of Melo PhD Thesis [1], updated for this paper and confirmed by research carried out by Stols-Witlox [31]
  3. aSize: layer of animal glue
  4. bThe author is referring to the practice of his predecessors or early painters
  5. cThe author does not specify the nature of the support and uses the generic term “tableau” to designate a painting. However, in the entries just before [34: entry 214, p. 229], he describes the preparation of canvas, wood, cartoons and other materials, so it is possible to conjecture that both supports, canvas and wood, are considered