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Table 2 Binder of the intermediate layers used in the reconstructions

From: Charcoal or black stone? Reconstructions as a tool to study the behaviour of dry underdrawing materials within the paint structure of sixteenth century panel paintings

Binder of intermediate layers Ingredients and method of preparation
Animal glue solution 10 g rabbit-skin glue in plates + 90 ml distilled water
Animal glue plates immersed in water overnight. Heated in a water bath to a maximum of 40–50 ºC
KREMER cold-pressed linseed oil Cold-pressed linseed oil from Sweden (Kremer, Ref. 73020)
HART untreated linseed oila Manually cold-pressed linseed oil (Sofie Linseeds, Netherlands)
Oil pressed on the 05. 06. 2019. No treatment to eliminate sediment or mucilage. Left to settle, decanted oil used (See Additional file 1)
HART drying linseed oila 250 ml manually cold-pressed linseed oil (Sofie Linseeds, Netherlands) + 12.5 g minium + 12.5 g litharge
Oil prepared according to Recipe P1P327 from the Winsor & Newton Archive Database (17. 06. 2019)
Dry powders: c. 10% of the solution
The dry powders were mixed together and added to the oil
The mixture was heated to 93.3 ºC (200 ºF) and stirred continuously for 5h 35 min
Left to cool, decanted oil used (See Additional file 1)
HART untreated linseed oil  +  HART drying linseed oil (1/1) Equal parts of each oil were manually mixed in a glass jar
KREMER cold-pressed linseed oil  +  turpentine The brush was first dipped in turpentine and only then slightly mixed in a glazed ceramic bowl containing the oil binder (~c. 30–50% turpentine)
For the imprimatura paints, the brush was dipped in turpentine and directly mixed with the paint on the glass slab
The paint became quite liquid (~c. 30–50% turpentine)
The percentage of turpentine was assessed by eye
HART untreated linseed oil  +  HART drying linseed oil (1/1)  +  turpentine The brush was first dipped in turpentine and only then slightly mixed in a glazed ceramic bowl containing the oil binder (~c. 30–50% turpentine)
For the imprimatura paints, the brush was dipped in turpentine and directly mixed with the paint on the glass slab
The paint became quite liquid (~c. 30–50% turpentine)
The percentage of turpentine was assessed by eye
  1. aOils prepared and kindly provided by Dr. Leslie Carlyle and Raquel Marques from Nova University, Lisbon, Portugal