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Table 3 Results of the archaeological pigments and plaster physico-chemical analysis

From: Comprehensive study of 12th century wall painting fragments from the St. George Cathedral of the Yuryev Monastery in Veliky Novgorod (Russia) using complementary physico-chemical methods

Sample Description XRF analysis FTIR spectroscopy Raman spectroscopy Optical microscopy
Elements found Pigment suggestion Infrared bands (cm− 1) Mineral Raman bands (cm− 1) Mineral Thickness, µm
  Plaster Ca, Si, Al, Mg, Fe, P, K, Cl, S, Mn, Ti Lime, sand 1793, 1397, 871, 712;
3390b, 1077c, 1016b, 613b;
1156c
Calcite;
Clay minerals;
Quartz
  
M1 Yellow Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Pb, S, K, Ti, P, Cr, Mna Yellow ochre, lime, white lead or massicot 1795, 1410, 873, 712;
3695, 3619, 1105c, 1027, 1007, 913, 534;
695, 433;
3300b, 796, 749, 466
Calcite;
Kaolinite;
Quartz;
Goethite d
148, 281, 1087;
294, 388, 561;
146, 281
Calcite;
Goethite;
Massicot
25
M2 Red Si, Ca, Fe, Al, Mg, K, P, S, Ti, Pb, Mn, Sr, Cl, Ba, As Red ochre, lime 1795, 1413, 873, 712;
1032b;
1162, 796, 777, 694, 519;
445
Calcite;
Clay minerals;
Quartz;
Hematite
154, 293, 1086;
226, 293, 408, 513, 610, 652, 1309
Calcite;
Hematite
50
M3 Green Si, Ca, Fe, Al, K, Mg, Pb, P, S, Ti, Mn, Sr, As Green earth, lime 1795, 1412, 872, 712;
3350b, 1102c, 1010c;
3554, 3526, 967, 797, 679, 487, 449, 438
Calcite;
Clay minerals;
Celadonite
   30–40
M4 Blue Si, Ca, Al, Mg, K, S, Fe, P, Ti, Cl, Sr, Ba Lazurite, lime 1795, 1413, 873, 712;
3696b, 3620, 1088c;
797, 779, 695, 519c;
1001, 654, 577, 534, 441
Calcite;
Clay minerals;
Quartz;
Lazurite
1091;
547, 1091
Calcite;
Lazurite
2 layers
total 40 μm
M5 Black Ca, Si, Al, Mg, Fe, K, P, Ti, Mn, S, Pb, Sr “Reft’ ” (carbon black), lime 1795, 1409, 872, 711;
3695, 3620, 1095c, 1029, 1007, 911, 536;
789, 751, 466
Calcite;
Kaolinite;
Goethite
163, 1086;
1335, 1620
Calcite;
“Reft’ ” (carbon black)
20–50
M6 Orange Ca, Pb, S, Si, Al, As, Fe, P, K, Cl, Ti, Mn Red lead, lime, clay minerals 1795, 1403, 872, 712;
3410b, 1079c, 1030, 781, 527;
1160
Calcite;
Clay minerals;
Sand
86, 122, 152, 222, 312, 391, 549 Red lead 40–60
  1. aElements with content less than 1 mass% are marked italic; bappears as a wide peak; cappears as a shoulder; dcolored components mark bold