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Table 5 Pigments analysis results in the stairs tower by XRF

From: Comprehensive study of 12th century wall painting fragments from the St. George Cathedral of the Yuryev Monastery in Veliky Novgorod (Russia) using complementary physico-chemical methods

Sample Description Elements found Pigment
W1 Plaster Ca, S, Si, Al, Fe, K, Ti, Mn, Zn Lime, gypsum, sand
W2 Light blue > Ti, Si, Fe
 ≈ Al, K, Mn, Zn
 < Ca, S
Lime, gypsum, sand
W3 Dark brown > Si, P, Pb, Fe
 ≈ Al, K, Ti, Mn, Zn
 < Ca, S
Red ochre, white lead, lime
W4 Deep red >> Si, Fe
 > K, P, Ti, Pb
 ≈ Al, Mn, Zn
 < < Ca, S
Red ochre, white lead, lime
W5 Yellow > Fe
 ≈ Ca, Al, K, Si, Ti, Zn
 < S, Mn
Yellow ochre, lime
W6 Green > Fe, K
 ≈ Si, Ti
 < Al, Mn, Zn
 < < S, Ca
Glauconite or celadonite, lime
W7 Dove color >> Fe, K
 > Si, P
 ≈ Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Zn
 < S
Glauconite or celadonite, lime
W8 Blue >> Ti, Si, Al, K, Fe
 > Zn
 ≈ Ca, Mn
 < < S
 
W9 Blue >> Cu, Pb, As
 ≈ Al, K, Ca, Ti
 < Si, S, Mn, Fe, Zn
Azurite (?)
  1. In this table, the following conventions are used for the mass fraction of an element from the pigment composition compared with the mass fraction of the same element from the plaster base composition:
  2. - Element from the pigment composition of the marked with “>” has mass fraction value greater than the same element from the plaster base composition;
  3. - Element marked with “>>” has mass fraction value that is more than an order of magnitude greater than the same element mass fraction in the plaster base;
  4. - Element marked with “<“ has mass fraction value less than in the plaster base;
  5. - Element marked with “<<“ has mass fraction value that is more than an order of magnitude smaller than in the plaster base;
  6. - Element marked with “≈” has mass fraction value that is similar to the same element value in the plaster base;