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Table 2 Overview of the materials identified or tentatively identified through non-invasive analysis of the six paintings investigated

From: A multi-analytical study of the palette of impressionist and post-impressionist Puerto Rican artists

Painting Color MA-XRF/SEM-EDX Reflectance spectroscopy/µ-reflectance spectroscopy
Element Figure/distribution map Tentative pigment identification Distribution map/spectrum Maximum absorption (nm) Inflection point (nm) Tentative pigment identification
Trapiche Green Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue Additional file 1: Fig. S2-EM2 450, 600, 705 745 Viridian and/or chrome(III)oxide green
Blue Co Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Co Cobalt blue Additional file 1: Fig. S2-EM1 540, 580, 630 680 Cobalt blue
Red Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Hg Vermilion N/A N/A N/A N/A
Yellow Fe Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Fe Iron oxide/oxy-hydroxide Additional file 1: Fig. S2-EM4 630, 900 N/A Ochre
Brown Additional file 1: Fig. S2-EM3
Dark/black Co, Ca Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Co Cobalt blue Additional file 1: Fig. S2-EM5 580, 630 680 Cobalt blue
Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Ca Bone black
Ground Pb Additional file 1: Fig. S1-Pb Lead white N/A N/A N/A N/A
CAM-1329 Green Cr, Co, Zn, As, Cu Figure 2-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue Figure 3-EM3–5 450, 600, 705 745 Viridian/chrome(III)oxide green + ultramarine blue
Cobalt blue/Cobalt green
Zinc white/Cobalt green
Figure 2-Co, Zn Cobalt blue + zinc white and/or cobalt green
Figure 2-As, Cu Emerald and/or Scheele’s green Figure 3-EM7 450, 670   Emerald green
Blue N/A N/A N/A Figure 3-EM2 410, 600 690 Ultramarine blue
Yellow N/A N/A N/A Figure 3-EM8, EM9 440, 565, 650 500, 695 Possibly organic yellow
Brown Hg Figure 2-Hg Vermilion Figure 3-EM6 455, 560, 640 580 Ochre + vermilion
White Pb Figure 2-Pb Lead white N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ground Pb Figure 2-Pb Lead white N/A N/A N/A N/A
Retouching Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Ba Figure 2-Ca, Fe, Ti, Ba Calcium carbonate
Iron oxide/oxy—hydroxide
Titanium white
Barium sulfate
Figure 3-EM1 630, 900   Ochre
Painting Color MA-XRF Reflectance spectroscopy
Element Figure/distribution map Tentative pigment identification Distribution map/spectrum Maximum absorption (nm) Inflection point (nm) Tentative pigment identification
CAM-1328 Green Cu, As, Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Cu, As Emerald green and/or Scheele’s green Additional file 1: Fig. S4-EM1 450, 670   Emerald green
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue
Blue N/A N/A N/A Additional file 1: Fig. S4-EM5 590 700 Ultramarine blue
Red Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Hg Vermilion Additional file 1: Fig. S4-EM7 660 590 Vermilion-containing red
Yellow N/A N/A N/A Additional file 1: Fig. S4-EM2, EM3 440 500 Possibly organic yellow
Brown Fe, Mn, Hg, Ca Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Fe, Mn Umber Fig. S4-EM6 N/A 700 Unknown brown, most likely containing ultramarine blue
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Hg Vermilion
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Ca Bone black or calcium carbonate
Ground Pb Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Pb Lead white N/A N/A N/A- N/A
Retouching Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Ba, Co, Zn Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Fe Iron oxide/oxy-hydroxide Additional file 1: Fig. S4-EM4 630, 890 520 Ochre
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-K Unknown
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Ca Calcium carbonate
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Ti Titanium white
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Ba Barium sulfate
Additional file 1: Fig. S3-Co, Zn Cobalt blue/cobalt green
Zinc white/cobalt green
2004–005 Green Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM7 450, 600, 710 750 Viridian and/or chrome(III)oxide green
Red Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Hg Vermilion Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM5, EM6 540, 660, 700 580 Mixture containing vermilion
Yellow N/A N/A Possibly organic Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM1 N/A N/A Unknown (possibly organic) yellow
Brown Fe, Mn, Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Fe, Mn Umber Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM2 N/A N/A Unknown dark
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Hg Vermilion
Black Cr, Ca, Mn, Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue N/A N/A N/A N/A
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Ca Bone black
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Mn Umber
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Hg Vermilion
Ground Pb
Ca
Ba
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Pb Lead white
Calcium carbonate
Barium sulfate
N/A N/A N/A N/A
Retouching Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Ba, Co, Zn Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Mn Umber Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM3 630, 705, 795   Possibly organic green
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Ca Calcium carbonate
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-K Unknown
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Ti Titanium white Additional file 1: Fig. S6-EM4 480, 630, 890   Ochre
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Ba Barium sulfate
Additional file 1: Fig. S5-Co, Zn Cobalt blue/cobalt green
Zinc white/cobalt green
2004–007 Green Cu, As, Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Cu, As Emerald green and/or Scheele’s green Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM2 430, 680   Emerald green
Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM7 680 480 Prussian blue + yellow
Blue N/A N/A N/A Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM1 680   Prussian blue
Red Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Hg Vermilion Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM8 N/A 590 Vermilion
Yellow Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Cr Chrome yellow N/A N/A N/A N/A
Brown Fe, Mn Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Fe, Mn Umber Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM3, EM4 690 575 Unknown
Black Ca, Co Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Ca Bone black Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM5 N/A N/A Unknown
Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Co Cobalt blue
Ground Pb, Ba, Zn, Ca, S Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Pb Lead white N/A N/A N/A N/A
Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Ba Barium sulfate
Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Zn Zinc oxide
Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Ca Calcium carbonate and/or sulfate
Possible retouching Zn Additional file 1: Fig. S7-Zn Zinc white Additional file 1: Fig. S8-EM6 630, 710, 795   Possibly modern pigment
2003–05–02 Green Cr, Cu Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Cr Viridian, chrome(III)oxide green and/or chrome yellow + blue Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM4 700 505 Prussian blue + yellow
Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Cu Cu-based green such as verdigris, copper resinate or malachite
Blue N/A N/A N/A Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM1 700 N/A Prussian blue
Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM3 420, 600 720 Ultramarine blue
Red Fe, Hg Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Fe Iron oxide/oxy-hydroxide Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM2 480, 650, 865 580 Red ochre
Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Hg Vermilion Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM5 485, 650, 900 585 Vermilion (+ iron oxide)
Yellow Fe, Cr Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Fe Iron oxide/oxy-hydroxide Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM6 555, 620, 850 N/A Yellow ochre + other yellow
Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Cr Chrome yellow Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM8 480, 620 520 Possibly chrome yellow
Brown Fe, Mn Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Fe, Mn Umber     
Black Ca Fig. S9-Ca Bone black Additional file 1: Fig. S10-EM9 645 N/A Bone black
Ground Pb
Zn
Additional file 1: Fig. S9-Pb Lead white
Zinc white
N/A N/A N/A