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Table 1 Summary of SOP findings in the colour charts of the Deutsches Farbenbuch, Part II (1925)

From: Analytical studies on commercial artists’ colour charts from Das Deutsche Farbenbuch (1925)—identification of synthetic and natural organic colourants by Raman microscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and metal underlayer ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

Analytical technique SOP name Colour index number Chemical class Discovery/first synthesis Colour charts Hue/s label Main elements detected by XRF/
Information on admixture
Normal Raman spectroscopy Pigment Red 1 12070 ß-Naphthol 1885 Siegle, oil colours Moderot 3 S, Ba, Sr
Moderot 1 S, Ba, Zn
Pigment Red 3 12120 ß-Naphthol 1904 Neisch Temperafarben, Sorte 700, tempera colours Echtrot deckend Al, Si, Fe, Cd, Se
Admixture with cadmium red
Flamuco, tempera colours Echtrot Al, P, Ca, Ba
142 Heliorot I Al, Ca, Cl, Pb, Zn, Hg, S
Admixture with vermilion
Rubensölfarben, oil colours Echtrot deckend Al, Si, Fe
Pigment Red 4 12085 ß-Naphthol 1906 Siegle, oil colours Echthellrot PR S, Ba, Sr
Pigment Red 40 12170 ß-Naphthol 1878 Siegle, oil colours Dunkelbordeaux 30 S, Ba, Sr
Pigment Red 49 15630 ß-Naphthol 1899 Siegle, oil colours Corallenrot 5 S, Ba, Zn
Corallenrot RCO Ba, S
Pigment Red 54 14830 Monoazo 1910 Siegle I, oil colours Carmoisinlack BL Ba, S, Zn, Sr
Pigment Red 57 (PR57:1?) 15850 BONS (Ca?) 1903 Turm, watercolours Karminlack Al, Si, S, Ba, Fe, P
Acid Green 1/Pigment Green 12 10020/10020:1 Nitroso dye 1883 Turm, watercolours Saftgrün blaulich, S, Ba, Si, Fe, Pb
Saftgrün gelblich Al, S, Ba (Fe not det.)
Indigo 73000 Indigoid 1878/80 (synth.) Turm, watercolours Indigo S, Ca, Si, Al
Paynes grau Al, Si, K, Ba, Fe
Admixture with Basic Violet 1 (see below)
Pelikan, watercolours Indigo Zn, Si, Cl
Paynes grau Al, Si, P
Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy Carminic acid-based colourants 75470 Anthraquinone 1991 (synth.) Turm watercolours Krapplack, dunkel Al, Si, S, Ba, Fe, P
Flamuco, watercolours Karmin gebrant P, Al, Ca
Admixture with alizarine and purpurin
Pelikan, watercolours 231 Carmin fein Hg, S
Admixture with vermilion
Schoenfeld, watercolours 8 Karmin Ba
Alizarin-based colourants   Anthraquinone 1868 (synth.) Flamuco, watercolours Krapplack, dunkel P, Al, S, Ca, Ba
Karminlack P, Al, Ca
Violetter lack Na, Al, Si, S, P, Ca
Admixture with ultramarine blue
Karmin gebrant P, Al, Ca
Admixture with carminic acid and purpurin
Bössenroth, tempera colours 125 Krapprosa I Zn, Ba, S, Ca, P
129 Krapplack, dunkel I Al, Si, P, Ca, Ba, S
138 Krapplack purpur I Al, Si, P, Fe, Ca, Ba, S
Admixture with purpurin
Neisch, tempera colours Krapplack tief Al, Si, P, Fe
Pelikan, watercolours Krapplack, dunkel (242) Al, P, K, Ca, Pb
Schoenfeld, watercolours Krapplack Alizarin hell (Nr.4) Al, P, Ba
Acid Red 87/pigment Red 90 45430 Xanthene 1876 Turm, watercolours Rosalack Al, Ba, Pb, Fe, Br
    Flamuco, tempera colours Krapplack dunkel Al, P, Ba, S, Ca
45380 Xanthene 1871 Amixture with Alizarine
Basic Red 5 50040 Azine 1849 Mussini, oil colours Wurzel-Krapplack mittel Nr. 5 Fe, Pb, Al, P, S
Basic Violet 1 (or homologue) 42535 Triarylcarbonium 1861 Turm, watercolours Payne’s grey Al, Si, K, Ba, Fe in
Admixture with Indigo
Neutraltinte S, Si
Siegle, oil colours Oelviolett 970 Al, Si, Ba, Zn, Pb, Sr
Violett 6 Al, Si, Zn
Basic Violet 2 (or homologue) 42520 Triarylcarbonium 1889 Pelikan, watercolours Neutraltinte rötlich Si, P, Ba, S, Fe, Zn
Basic Violet 10 or Basic Violet 11 45170/45175 Xanthene BV 10–1905/BV 11–(?) Flamuco, tempera colours Krapplack rosa Al, P
Flamuco, watercolours Paynes-grau Ca, S, P, Al, Si
Admixture with ultramarine blue
Pigment Violet 5 58055 Anthraquinone (?) Turm, watercolours Violett Al, Si, S, Ba
Metal underlayer attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy Pigment Yellow 1 11680 Monoazo 1909 Bössenroth, tempera colours 3 Echtgelb II Zn, Ba, S, Sr
31 Indischgelb imit. II Cr, Sr, Fe, Ca, Cd
Admixture with cadmium yellow and strontium chromate
  1. The findings are organized by the analytical technique successfully used for the identification of the colourant as main category and within this colour-wise. The confirmed presence of further pigments/dyes in admixture with the main colorant has been specified