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  1. We present reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) as a documentation tool for visualizing and recording the treatment of coins. RTI—a computational photograph technique that calculates light positions—allows...

    Authors: Jihyun Min, Sanghoon Jeong, Kangwoo Park, Yeonghwan Choi, Daewon Lee, Jaehong Ahn, Donghwan Har and Sangdoo Ahn
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:105
  2. The effect of relative humidity (RH) and light on the development of epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) in Winsor & Newton cadmium yellow (CY) and French ultramarine (FU) artists’ oil colour paints was investigated. Tube pain...

    Authors: Jessie Harrison, Judith Lee, Bronwyn Ormsby and David J. Payne
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:107
  3. Having extremely high artistic, scientific and social values, earthen sites are widely distributed in China and are important human cultural relic resources. Due to accumulated natural erosions (from rain and ...

    Authors: Yumin Du, Wenwu Chen, Kai Cui, Wenqiang Dong, Shuai Zhang and Qiyong Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:103
  4. Jacques-Louis David’s (1748–1825) iconic portrait of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) and Marie-Anne Lavoisier (Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, 1758–1836) has come to epitomize a modern couple born of the Enlig...

    Authors: Silvia A. Centeno, Dorothy Mahon, Federico Carò and David Pullins
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:84
  5. Space technology offers effective tools to monitor the status of World Natural Heritage sites. East Rennell Island, which covers approximately 37,000 hectares (ha) and a marine area extending three nautical mi...

    Authors: Sijia Huo, Mengmeng Wang, Guolong Chen, Huiqin Shu and Ruixia Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:101
  6. Paintings and painted surfaces are considered to be extremely complex due to their multitude of materials and thus form the basis for particularly intricate Cultural Heritage studies. The combination of Scanni...

    Authors: E. Palamara, P. P. Das, S. Nicolopoulos, L. Tormo Cifuentes, E. Kouloumpi, A. Terlixi and N. Zacharias
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:100
  7. Earthen cultural ruins and their subsurface environments act as carriers or support for aboveground cultural heritage artefacts, and groundwater has been identified as the most important factor accelerating th...

    Authors: Jing Cao, Bingjie Mai, Hua Chen, Yuhu Li and Juanli Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:99
  8. Thirteen Zhou Dynasty bronze vessels and two slags from Zongyang County along the north bank of the Yangtze River in Anhui were analyzed by LA-MC-ICP-MS and EDXRF. The results of lead isotope analysis showed t...

    Authors: Yanjie Wang, Guofeng Wei, Qiang Li, Xiaoping Zheng and Danchun Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:97
  9. Korean hand papermaking is a renowned cultural tradition in the Korean peninsula. It is still practiced while scientific analysis of paper itself from a large data set is rare. In this study, a set of more tha...

    Authors: Bin Han, Léon-Bavi Vilmont, Hyoung-Jin Kim, Bertrand Lavédrine, Shouji Sakamoto and Michel Sablier
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:96
  10. The Isabel II dam is a monumental hydraulic structure built in the middle of the nineteenth century in Spain. In this study, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry was used as a data acquisition techniqu...

    Authors: Patricio Martínez-Carricondo, Fernando Carvajal-Ramírez, Lourdes Yero-Paneque and Francisco Agüera-Vega
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:95
  11. Many wooden Chinese historic buildings are destroyed due to the ravages of frequent fire disasters. The fire risk of historic buildings are highly enlarged since a long-time weathered wooden structures in the ...

    Authors: Wei Ke, Wanyu Yang, Biao Zhou, Kai Wang, Jiazhi Sun, Xukun Sun, Min Xu, Qingqing Chen, Bo Qiu, Wei Wang and Xuan Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:93
  12. This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to analyze textual sources from nomadic civilization. Linguistic analysis has been increasingly used due to the emergence of a huge array of autochthonous and au...

    Authors: Akmaral Ibrayeva, Assemgul Temirkhanova, Zaure Kartova, Tlegen Sadykov, Nurbolat Abuov and Anatoliy Pleshakov
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:90
  13. An ancient table zither qin, an emblematic stringed instrument of traditional Chinese music, has been rediscovered in the museum collection of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (inv.4224, CNAM collec...

    Authors: Marie-Gabrielle Durier, Alexandre Girard-Muscagorry, Christine Hatté, Tiphaine Fabris, Cyrille Foasso, Witold Nowik and Stéphane Vaiedelich
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:89
  14. A multianalytical approach was used to characterize the materials in the “Vienna Moamin”, an outstanding richly illustrated manuscript from the late thirteenth century, which was made in Italy and is now kept ...

    Authors: Wilfried Vetter, Bernadette Frühmann, Federica Cappa and Manfred Schreiner
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:87
  15. The joint development of cultural heritage protection and tourism is an essential part of sustainable heritage tourism. Mount Lushan in China is such a site which in the past has had shortcomings in heritage p...

    Authors: Zhenrao Cai, Chaoyang Fang, Qian Zhang and Fulong Chen
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:86

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:146

  16. Natural yellow plant dyes and traditional medicines were used widely on historical papers in ancient China for religious reasons and conservation considerations. This study aims to evaluate some traditional ye...

    Authors: Yanbing Luo and Xiujuan Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:85
  17. Decoration with feathers is a universal phenomenon in human history. Objects decorated with feathers were regarded as fine artworks and hence were enormously prized. In ancient China, dotting a surface with bl...

    Authors: An Gu, Na Wang, Yan-ju Kong, Jia-yu Hou, Gen Li and Yong Lei
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:82
  18. A collection of pottery vessels uncovered during the first season of excavations in the Deh Dumen Bronze Age graveyard (the second half of the third millennium BC) located in south-western Iran were studied by...

    Authors: Omid Oudbashi, Reza Naseri, Giuseppe Cultrone, Isabel Egartner and Anna Arizzi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:83
  19. Depicting the temporal and spatial evolution pattern of global world cultural heritage systematically and finely is the basis of heritage recognition and protection. In this study, 869 world cultural heritage ...

    Authors: Liang Yongqi, Yang Ruixia, Wang Pu, Yang Anlin and Chen Guolong
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:80
  20. Scratches on cine-film significantly affect the quality of projected film images forming blackness or brightness. Only blackness can be restored by restoration dispersion. However, why the scratches can or can...

    Authors: Qingmeng Xu, Feifan Xu and Daodao Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:79

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:129

  21. In this investigation on the mechanical behaviour of paint films, we use a new ferrule-top nanoindentation protocol developed for cultural heritage studies to examine the impact of repeated relative humidity v...

    Authors: Mathilde Tiennot, Davide Iannuzzi and Erma Hermens
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:77
  22. Extending the life cycle of heritage buildings through their adaptive reuse can ensure their survival and is concordant with the policy of sustainable development. Selecting a new form of use for heritage buil...

    Authors: Grzegorz Śladowski, Bartłomiej Szewczyk, Krzysztof Barnaś, Olga Kania and Janusz Barnaś
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:76
  23. The most important inhibitors used in bronze disease are BTA and AMT. While these inhibitors control corrosion, they are toxic and cancerous. In this study, the acacia fruit extract (200 ppm to 1800 ppm) was u...

    Authors: Vahid Pourzarghan and Bahman Fazeli-Nasab
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:75
  24. According to various historic accounts and material evidence, the practice of producing lime mortars by mixing the quicklime with the sand (i.e. hot-mixing) before first slaking it with water was much more com...

    Authors: Cecilia Pesce, Martha C. Godina, Alison Henry and Giovanni Pesce
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:72
  25. Historical costumes are part of cultural heritage. Unlike architectural monuments, they are very fragile, which exacerbates the problems of their protection and popularisation. A big help in this can be the di...

    Authors: Jerzy Montusiewicz, Marek Miłosz, Jacek Kęsik and Kamil Żyła
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:74
  26. The Great Wall of China is one of the largest architectural heritage sites globally, and its sustainability is a significant concern. However, its large extent and diverse characteristics are challenges for de...

    Authors: Hang Xu, Fulong Chen and Wei Zhou
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:71
  27. A multi-analytical study was designed to characterise historical coated plaster surfaces. The method was applied to investigate the surface coatings of the nineteenth-century plaster cast of the tombstone of t...

    Authors: Valentina Risdonne, Charlotte Hubbard, Johanna Puisto and Charis Theodorakopoulos
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:70
  28. While the chemistry of artists’ paints has previously been studied and reviewed, these studies only capture a portion of the properties affecting the response of paint materials. The mechanical properties of a...

    Authors: Gwen dePolo, Marc Walton, Katrien Keune and Kenneth R. Shull
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:68
  29. The paper discusses a recent find of a copper alloy light cannon discovered at the Old Castle in Grodno, Belarus. The research aim was to analyse the artefact in all its possible aspects, including archaeologi...

    Authors: Grzegorz Żabiński, Piotr Strzyż, Tomasz Goryczka, Krzysztof Aniołek and Ewelina Miśta-Jakubowska
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:67
  30. In this study we investigate the impact of the addition of colourless glass particles to red glazes, as seen in many 15th-17th-century easel paintings. With the use of reconstructions, we examined the influenc...

    Authors: Mitra Almasian, Mathilde Tiennot, Lionel D. Fiske and Erma Hermens
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:66
  31. From the mid-1800s to the late 1960s, conservation by alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O—potassium aluminium sulphate), using various recipes, was a common method to prevent shrinkage and to strengthen waterlogged archa...

    Authors: Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Malin Sahlstedt, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini and Susan Braovac
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:69
  32. The Gongsanseong Fortress in Gongju, Republic of Korea, is one of the most essential remains for historical research of Baekje Kingdom, and reinforces on the fortress wall has continuously been implemented sin...

    Authors: Jun Hyoung Park, Seok Tae Park and Chan Hee Lee
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:65
  33. Over the last few years, the Federal Institute for material research (BAM, Berlin) together with the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMC, University of Hamburg) have initiated a systematic materi...

    Authors: Tea Ghigo and María Jesús Albarrán Martínez
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:62
  34. Glass beads excavated from Nanhai I shipwreck were investigated with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS), Raman spectroscopy, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma m...

    Authors: Chenxin Tian, Yihang Zhou, Kai Wang, Jian Sun, Yong Cui and Dongbo Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:61
  35. This work concerns the study of colors and dyes identified on archaeological textiles from the Atacama Desert. The different garments and ornaments come from the excavation of two important pre-Columbian cemet...

    Authors: Marcela Sepúlveda, Cecilia Lemp Urzúa, José Cárcamo-Vega, Edgar Casanova-Gónzalez, Sebastián Gutiérrez, Miguel Ángel Maynez-Rojas, Benjamín Ballester and José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:59
  36. Based on the research results and practical engineering experience pertaining to the protection and reinforcement of the cliff of the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, China, this paper presents a method that is mai...

    Authors: Xudong Wang, Yanwu Wang, Qinglin Guo, Qiangqiang Pei and Guojing Zhao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:58
  37. The growing importance of publishing art collections online has led to increasingly strict tolerances on digital photography of art objects. There are two internationally recognized sets of guidelines for crea...

    Authors: Eric Kirchner, Carola van Wijk, Henni van Beek and Tammo Koster
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:57

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