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  1. Due to the location of the Yungang Grottoes, freeze–thaw cycles contribute significantly to the degradation of the mechanical properties of the sandstone. The factors influencing the freeze–thaw cycle are clas...

    Authors: Chenchen Liu, Yibiao Liu, Weizhong Ren, Wenhui Xu, Simin Cai and Junxia Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:154
  2. Attribution of paintings is a critical problem in art history. This study extends machine learning analysis to surface topography of painted works. A controlled study of positive attribution was designed with ...

    Authors: F. Ji, M. S. McMaster, S. Schwab, G. Singh, L. N. Smith, S. Adhikari, M. O’Dwyer, F. Sayed, A. Ingrisano, D. Yoder, E. S. Bolman, I. T. Martin, M. Hinczewski and K. D. Singer
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:152

    The Research Highlight to this article has been published in Nature 2021 599:d41586-021-03447-w

  3. Gulangyu Island is a special case of social development and changes since modern China. In the past, Chinese and foreign people lived together and Chinese and Western cultures coexisted, resulting in an intern...

    Authors: Yuan Li, Jing Guo, Long Zhao, Yiping Chen, Cheng Wang, Cheng Wang and Jonathan Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:151
  4. The main objective of this study is to establish an appropriate method for the characterization of the pigments, materials and structure of the paint layers in a copy of the painting the Transfiguration of Christ

    Authors: Eloísa Manzano, Rosario Blanc, J. Daniel Martin-Ramos, Giacomo Chiari, P. Sarrazin and Jose Luis Vilchez
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:150
  5. UNESCO Global Geoparks should be of international geological significance in terms of their scientific quality, rarity, aesthetic appeal and tourism value. At least nine Cenozoic volcanic fields are developed ...

    Authors: Han Fu, Bihong Fu, Pilong Shi and Yuanyuan Zheng
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:149
  6. Ancient Chinese brass smelting technology has promoted the invention of zinc smelting, thus becoming an important part of the metallurgical history. However, the information concerning its origin and developme...

    Authors: Yanbing Shao, Fengrui Jiang, Jingnan Du, Junchang Yang and Quanmin Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:148
  7. The Regional Archive of Cusco in Peru guards valuable history collections with exceptional regional and international value dating from the sixteenth century to the present. Historical manuscripts are part of ...

    Authors: Celina Luízar Obregón, Marco A. Zamalloa Jara, Flor L. Rojas Arizapana, Yuri J. Chura Huayllani, Janet F. Gonzales Bellido and Jorge Olivera Olivera
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:147
  8. The cleaning of particles from smooth and rough paper surfaces using a high-speed CO2 snow jet was investigated. The measurements included characterization of the jet properties, determination of the cleaning eff...

    Authors: Ludmila Mašková, Jiří Smolík, Petra Vávrová, Jitka Neoralová, Magda Součková, Dana Novotná, Věra Jandová, Jakub Ondráček, Lucie Ondráčková, Tereza Křížová, Kateřina Kocová and Petr Stanovský
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:145
  9. Changing seasonal precipitation patterns prompted by climate change are likely causing increasing degradation of adobe architecture in the American Southwest. This deterioration includes surface erosion and ca...

    Authors: Sharlot Hart, Kara Raymond, C. Jason Williams, Justin Johnson, Jacob DeGayner and Matthew C. Guebard
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:143
  10. Low-risk removal of embedded surface soiling on delicate heritage objects can require novel alternatives to traditional cleaning systems. Edvard Munch’s monumental Aula paintings (1911–16) have a long history ...

    Authors: Lena Porsmo Stoveland, Tine Frøysaker, Maartje Stols-Witlox, Terje Grøntoft, Calin Constantin Steindal, Odile Madden and Bronwyn Ormsby
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:144
  11. The most frequent cause of glass degradation is environmental moisture, which is adsorbed on its surface forming a hydration layer that induces the rupture of the glass network. This pathology is accelerated b...

    Authors: Rodrigo Arévalo, Jadra Mosa, Mario Aparicio and Teresa Palomar
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:142
  12. In view of the polysemy of mural images and the style difference among mural images painted in different dynasties as well as the high energy costs of the traditional manual dynasty classification method, whic...

    Authors: Jianfang Cao, Minmin Yan, Huiming Chen, Xiaodong Tian and Shang Ma
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:141
  13. Birch tar is one of the oldest adhesives known in human history. Its production has been discussed in the framework of early complex behaviours and sophisticated cognitive capacities. The precise production me...

    Authors: Patrick Schmidt, Matthias A. Blessing, Tabea J. Koch and Klaus G. Nickel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:140
  14. The White-Robed Water-Moon Avalokiteshvara painting displayed on the rear wall of Daegwangbojeon (main hall) in Magoksa temple, is one of the representative Buddhist paintings in the late nineteenth century of Ko...

    Authors: Hye Ri Yang, Chan Hee Lee and Jeongeun Yi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:139
  15. A mural is any piece of artwork sculpted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. This artwork symbolizes various culture’s, traditions, historical events, spiritual stories, and civi...

    Authors: V. Rakhi Mol and P. Uma Maheswari
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:137
  16. “Paintings fade like flowers”: van Gogh’s prediction on the impact of age on paintings came true for most of his paintings. We have studied the consequences of this aging on the Sunflowers in a vase with a yellow...

    Authors: Shuting Liao, Patrice Koehl, Jennifer Schultens and Fushing Hsieh
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:136
  17. Large-scale human activities especially the destruction of forest land, grassland, and unused land result in a large amount of carbon release into the atmosphere and cause drastic changes in land use/cover in ...

    Authors: Haiyan Li, Yi Qu, Xingyu Zeng, Hongqiang Zhang, Ling Cui and Chunyu Luo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:134
  18. In recent years, there has been an exponential growth in the use of digital media for data storage and the creation of museums, libraries and digital archives. In particular, Compact Discs Recordable (CD-R) ha...

    Authors: Anna M. Palermo, Antonio Gentile and Giuseppe Pellegrino
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:133
  19. Paper degradation menaces the useful lifetime of books, manuscripts, and works on paper during storage, circulation, and display in libraries, archives, and museums. Severe damages such as embrittlement, decay...

    Authors: Edyta Małachowska, Marcin Dubowik, Piotr Boruszewski and Piotr Przybysz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:132
  20. Carmen Herrera, born on May 30th, 1915, is a Cuban American abstract minimalist artist, whose first solo show was held at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, in 2016–2017. On this occasion, a scienti...

    Authors: Federica Pozzi, Elena Basso, Silvia A. Centeno, Isabelle Duvernois and Julie Arslanoglu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:131
  21. Built in Kaitai 9 years after the beginning of the Liao Dynasty (1020 A.D.), the Daxiong Hall of Fengguo Temple (Yixian County, Liaoning Province) is one of China’s largest existing ancient single-eave wooden ...

    Authors: Cheng Liu, Yuan He, Qian Li and Fei Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:127
  22. With the rapid development of interactive technologies using projection mapping (PJM), these digital technologies have introduced new interpretative possibilities for the presentation of cultural heritage site...

    Authors: Hengyi Li and Hiromu Ito
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:126
  23. Iron gall Inks corrosion causes paper degradation (browning, embrittlement) and treatments were developed to tackle this issue. They often include resizing with gelatin to reinforce the paper and its cellulosi...

    Authors: Alice Gimat, Anne Michelin, Pascale Massiani and Véronique Rouchon
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:125
  24. The Central Plains has a long history, rich culture, unique geographical advantages, and profound cultural heritage. The occurrence of ancient cities in the Central Plains marks the formation of Chinese state-...

    Authors: Lijie Yan, Ruixia Yang, Peng Lu, Fei Teng, Xia Wang, Li Zhang, Panpan Chen, Xiang Li, Lanbo Guo and Dong Zhao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:124
  25. Paper cultural relics such as double-sided printed newspapers and periodicals represent modern cultural heritage. Severe damage such as embrittlement, decay, and dreg generally occur to paper; hence, it urgent...

    Authors: Jiaojiao Liu, Huiping Xing, Juanli Wang, Jing Cao, Xiaolian Chao, Zhihui Jia and Yuhu Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:123
  26. Most heritage buildings and monuments are constructed out of natural stones which suffer irrevocable degradation when undergoing wet weathering, bowing, and dissolution in outdoor conditions. Self-cleaning tre...

    Authors: Zaixin Xie, Zhuoqi Duan, Zhanqiang Zhao, Ruheng Li, Bao Zhou, Dequan Yang and Yongmao Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:122
  27. Revealing the evolutionary history of the relationship between humans and Earth will help us understand the spatial and temporal distribution of ancient cultural sites (referred to as ancient sites). This rese...

    Authors: Litao Zhu, Zhengwei Li, Huimin Su and Xing Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:121
  28. A scrapbook compiled between 1660 and 1687 by Gesina ter Borch (1631–1690), a female artist from the small town of Zwolle in the Netherlands, contains an intriguing painting on paper of a full-length portrait ...

    Authors: Amélie Couvrat Desvergnes, Leila Sauvage, Jan de Hond, Paolo D’Imporzano and Matthias Alfeld
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:119
  29. Silo-cave is a unique human habitation form on the Loess Plateau in northern China, which consists of an excavated 6–7 m deep pit as the courtyard and cave dwellings in the surrounding four walls. This archite...

    Authors: Li Zhang, Peng Lu, Raymond Lau, Lijie Yan, Xiang Li, Ruixia Yang, Ho Hon Leung, Panpan Chen and Xia Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:118
  30. For conservation and restoration purposes, the precious historical rubbings preserved in Wuyuan Museum were studied by multi-analytical techniques including 14C radiocarbon dating, scanning electron microscopy (S...

    Authors: Na Yao, Xiangsheng Zhan, Qinglin Ma and Shuya Wei
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:116
  31. Scientific analysis revealed the materials and techniques used in the process of making polychrome sculptures providing a solid foundation for the protection and restoration of the painted statues. In addition...

    Authors: Yongdong Tong, Youzhen Cai, Xuening Wang, Zhimin Li, Austin Nevin and Qinglin Ma
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:117
  32. China has a deep traditional culture and a long history, and is rich in traditional settlements (designated as “Famous Historic-Cultural Villages/Towns”, “Chinese Traditional Villages” by Chinese Government). ...

    Authors: Zui Hu, Josef Strobl, Qingwen Min, Min Tan and Fulong Chen
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:115

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:128

  33. The dolmen of Guadalperal (Spain) became well known in 2019 when the waters of the reservoir in which it had long been submerged became so depleted as to leave it above water and highly visible. This gave rise...

    Authors: Enrique Cerrillo-Cuenca, José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco, Primitiva Bueno-Ramírez, Juan Antonio Pérez-Álvarez, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann and Manuel Sánchez-Fernández
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:114
  34. Using data from simulated and actual case studies, this paper assesses the accuracy and precision of Bayesian estimates for the constructional date of medieval masonry buildings, generated from the radiocarbon...

    Authors: Mark Thacker
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:113
  35. The viability of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) for the differentiation of red chalk drawing media was investigated, focusing on the group of drawings from the workshop of Giovanni Battista Piran...

    Authors: Maria Krämer, Ute Henniges, Irene Brückle, Laura Lenfant and Kirsten Drüppel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:112
  36. Lightning strike is one of the natural disasters to the roof components of ancient buildings. To investigate the causes and damage effects of lightning strikes on the roofing glazed tiles of ancient buildings,...

    Authors: Jingxiao Li, Zhiling Fang, Lin Fu, Shangchen Fu, Lihua Shi, Yun Li and Peidong Huo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:110
  37. Several well-preserved polychrome lacquered coffins were found in Zhang Dong family’s tombs in Shaanxi, China, rare in the history of archaeological excavation. In the lacquered coffins, a large amount of dark...

    Authors: Lang Guo, Yaxu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Xing Zhao, Fuwei Yang, Meiman Peng, Jinyi Guo, Kun Li and Xiaomeng Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:109
  38. Asbads (Persian windmills) present a multifaceted view of using heritage science. These mills are no longer in use due to advances in technology and the advent of new grinding systems. Windmills show perfect h...

    Authors: Mahsa Zarrabi and Nima Valibeig
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:108
  39. Commonly exhibited in museum galleries, animal mummies have been the focus of interest of both visitors and researchers alike. The study of these animal remains not only provides new insights into embalming te...

    Authors: Diego Tamburini, Joanne Dyer, Marie Vandenbeusch, Matilde Borla, Debora Angelici, Maurizio Aceto, Cinzia Oliva, Federica Facchetti, Sara Aicardi, Patrizia Davit and Monica Gulmini
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:106

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