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  1. Content type: Research article

    In this research, we propose an advanced system for the cleaning of wax-based coatings applied on indoor bronzes. To this aim we developed a new kind of eco-friendly gel based on PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) u...

    Authors: Jia Yiming, Giorgia Sciutto, Silvia Prati, Emilio Catelli, Monica Galeotti, Simone Porcinai, Laura Mazzocchetti, Chiara Samorì, Paola Galletti, Loris Giorgini, Emilio Tagliavini and Rocco Mazzeo

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:34

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Many Middle Stone Age sites in South Africa yielded hundreds, even thousands, of ochre pieces sometimes showing use traces. Less attention has been paid to the tools used for their processing. Here, seven tool...

    Authors: Marine Wojcieszak and Lyn Wadley

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:24

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The city of Nájera, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula, hosts an alcazar of Arab origin, which became the residence of the king of Pamplona-Nájera and later of the duke and duchess of Nájera. From t...

    Authors: Estefania Calparsoro, Uxue Sanchez-Garmendia, Gorka Arana, Maite Maguregui and Javier G. Iñañez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:33

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  4. Content type: Research article

    The impact of solvent exposure on oil paintings and the differences between solvent application methods are longstanding topics in cleaning studies. Solvent exposure is ideally kept to a minimum, because solve...

    Authors: Lambert Baij, Alina Astefanei, Joen Hermans, Francine Brinkhuis, Heleen Groenewegen, Louise Chassouant, Sofia Johansson, Garry Corthals, Caroline Tokarski, Piet Iedema and Katrien Keune

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:31

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Chloride ions are an important actor in the corrosion of iron-based archaeological artifact. To stop this degradation, excavated objects are subjected to dechlorination treatment. However, there is no guarante...

    Authors: Mathieu Jacot-Guillarmod, Katharina Schmidt-Ott, David Mannes, Anders Kaestner, Eberhard Lehmann and Claire Gervais

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:29

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  6. Content type: Research article

    A water based epoxy–silica consolidant and variants of the same consolidant containing silica nanoparticles (NP) were applied to Globigerina Limestone (GL) blocks by brushing and full immersion techniques. The...

    Authors: Sophie M. Briffa and Daniel A. Vella

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:30

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Many objects of culture heritage, comprised of leather, need to receive the right treatment to be restored and to elongate their lifespan. Determination of the degradation degree and even better the type of th...

    Authors: Gabriela Vyskočilová, Matthäa Ebersbach, Radka Kopecká, Lubomír Prokeš and Jiří Příhoda

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:26

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The size, shape, and application techniques of gold leaf in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century gold ground panel paintings attributed to artists working in Florence, Siena, and Fabriano was directly visualized ...

    Authors: Douglas MacLennan, Laura Llewellyn, John K. Delaney, Kathryn A. Dooley, Catherine Schmidt Patterson, Yvonne Szafran and Karen Trentelman

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:25

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2019 7:65

  9. Content type: Research article

    A series of Burmese lacquered objects decorated with the yun (incised) technique and belonging to the British Museum’s collection was analysed with the aim to investigate the decorative materials—lacquer, binding...

    Authors: Diego Tamburini, Verena Kotonski, Anna Lluveras-Tenorio, Maria Perla Colombini and Alexandra Green

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:28

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  10. Content type: Research article

    This work highlights the rediscovery of the technique of reverse glass painting by the artists of the “Blaue Reiter” collective in the early 20th-century and focusses particularly on the role of Wassily Kandin...

    Authors: Simon Steger, Diana Oesterle, Simone Bretz, Lisa Frenzel, Heike Stege, Iris Winkelmeyer, Oliver Hahn and Gisela Geiger

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:27

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  11. Content type: Research article

    This study concerns the assessment of a new polyvinyl alcohol–borax/agarose blend hydrogel (PVA–B/AG) tailored for the conservation of ancient Egyptian wall paintings. The increasing problems of deteriorated c...

    Authors: Ehab Al-Emam, Abdel Ghafour Motawea, Koen Janssens and Joost Caen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:22

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  12. Content type: Research article

    In illuminated manuscripts, a reliable identification of oxyanion pigments such as azurite by rFTIR is simple, as several combination and overtone bands are strongly enhanced compared to transmission mode. How...

    Authors: Wilfried Vetter, Irene Latini and Manfred Schreiner

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:21

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The nature printing technique was designed for the electrotyping reproduction of leaves and other natural products. Authentic impressions could be performed by inserting leaves between two lead plates or press...

    Authors: Valentina Ljubić Tobisch, Albina Selimović, Anna Artaker, Martin Klobassa and Wolfgang Kautek

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:20

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In this paper, a sword is investigated from a collection of archaeological iron swords displayed in the Egyptian Museum from the civilization centered on Ballana and Qustul in Egyptian Nubia (380–600 A.D.). A ...

    Authors: Yussri Salem, Omid Oudbashi and Doaa Eid

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:19

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Lead used to be a common material for setting seal to historical documents. Lead seals formed parts of historical documents as a guarantee of their legal validity. Disinfectants are commonly used during the re...

    Authors: Sarka Msallamova, Milan Kouril, Kristyna Charllote Strachotova, Jan Stoulil, Kateryna Popova and Pavla Dvorakova

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:18

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  16. Content type: Research article

    In conservation science, the identification of painting materials is fundamental for the study of artists’ palettes, for dating and for understanding on-going degradation phenomena. For these purposes, the stu...

    Authors: Alessia Artesani, Marta Ghirardello, Sara Mosca, Austin Nevin, Gianluca Valentini and Daniela Comelli

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:17

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  17. Content type: Review

    This review addresses the use of computational fluid dynamics for the interpretation and preservation of heritage. Fluid dynamic simulations in the heritage field focus mostly on slow air movement in indoor sp...

    Authors: Josep Grau-Bové, Luca Mazzei, Matija Strlic and May Cassar

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:16

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Liquid chromatography with UV–Vis and mass spectrometric detection (LC–DAD–MS) was applied to the identification of dyes and biological sources in samples from nineteenth to twentieth century ethnographic text...

    Authors: Irina Petroviciu, Iulia Teodorescu, Florin Albu, Marian Virgolici, Eugenia Nagoda and Andrei Medvedovici

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:15

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  19. Content type: Research article

    Quantitation of paint powders of ancient wall paintings is often hindered by the calcite contamination during samples withdrawal. To overcome this problem, a new approach was explored based on the mechanical p...

    Authors: Monica Gelzo, Gaetano Corso, Rita Pecce, Ottavia Arcari, Ciro Piccioli, Antonio Dello Russo and Paolo Arcari

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:12

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  20. Content type: Research article

    This paper proposes a new approach to collection surveying based on epidemiology, the discipline that describes and explains disease patterns in populations. In epidemiology the focus of attention lies not onl...

    Authors: Cristina Duran-Casablancas, Josep Grau-Bové, Tom Fearn and Matija Strlič

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:11

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  21. Content type: Review

    Wear and tear is the outcome of degradation most frequently reported in assessments of archival and library collections. It is also problematic to study in controlled experiments, due to the difficulty in repr...

    Authors: Cristina Duran-Casablancas, Josep Grau-Bové and Matija Strlič

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:10

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Ukiyo-e Japanese woodblock prints were mass-produced in the Edo Period and early impressions of a given print are generally of higher quality and more sought after by connoisseurs than late impressions. The pr...

    Authors: Capucine F. Korenberg, Lucia Pereira-Pardo, Peter J. McElhinney and Joanne Dyer

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:9

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Modern art materials introduced since the end of XIX century include a large number of formulations of synthetic polymers and pigments, whose degradation processes and best preservation conditions are a major ...

    Authors: Jacopo La Nasa, Greta Biale, Francesca Sabatini, Ilaria Degano, Maria Perla Colombini and Francesca Modugno

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:8

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  24. Content type: Research article

    This paper presents the results of a study of pigment-binder systems painted on parchment, both in the form of reference samples prepared in the laboratory, and of medieval and Renaissance illuminated manuscri...

    Authors: Luca Nodari and Paola Ricciardi

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:7

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  25. Content type: Research article

    This research presents the damage mechanism of a historical masonry architecture induced by differential settlement based on 3D FE analysis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the behavior fully-satur...

    Authors: Sayed Hemeda

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:6

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  26. Content type: Research article

    To understand the effects of an acidic environment on the internal structure of sandstone from the Yungang Grottoes, Datong, China, the physicochemical properties of fresh and weathered sandstone samples and t...

    Authors: Hong Geng, Shijie Zhang, Jianhui Zhi, Runping Zhang, Jianguang Ren and Chul-Un Ro

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:4

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Mosaics, one of the most important decorative artworks in the Roman culture, were usually elaborated with a set of tesserae joined with lime or others binders to form geometric or figurative decorations. The i...

    Authors: Iker Marcaida, Maite Maguregui, Héctor Morillas, Nagore Prieto-Taboada, Marco Veneranda, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Alberta Martellone, Bruno De Nigris, Massimo Osanna and Juan Manuel Madariaga

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:3

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Barkcloth textiles made in the Pacific islands and collected by western explorers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries form part of many museum collections worldwide. Here high-performance liquid chromat...

    Authors: T. H. Flowers, M. J. Smith and J. Brunton

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:2

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Micro-samples from 57 original paint tubes used between 1904 and 1909 by the Norwegian painter, Harriet Backer were studied with inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy (ICP–OES). This accurat...

    Authors: Francesco Caruso, Sara Mantellato, Noëlle L. W. Streeton and Tine Frøysaker

    Citation: Heritage Science 2019 7:1

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  30. Content type: Review

    From the mid-1800s to the late 1950s, conservation by alum salts (aluminum potassium sulfate dodecahydrate)—with some variations—was a routine method for treating highly deteriorated waterlogged archaeological...

    Authors: Susan Braovac, Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Malin Sahlstedt, Hartmut Kutzke, Jeannette J. Łucejko and Torunn Klokkernes

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:77

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Merchant-manufacturers in Norwich, a major centre for textile production in England, used pattern books and pattern cards containing swatches of worsted and worsted mixed with other yarns to facilitate sales a...

    Authors: Jocelyn Alcántara-García and Michael Nix

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:76

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  32. Content type: Research article

    At the heart of bureaucratic practice during Warring States and early Imperial China were regular, small acts of accountancy in which objects and people were marked so that their movements could be kept track ...

    Authors: Andrew Bevan, Xiuzhen Li, Zhen Zhao, Jianhua Huang, Stuart Laidlaw, Na Xi, Yin Xia, Shengtao Ma and Marcos Martinon-Torres

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:75

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The study of the alteration process, and in particular of secondary phases precipitated in pottery after its production, can constrain the post-depositional environments or the type of use of the pottery. Deta...

    Authors: Lara Maritan, Lluís Casas, Anna Crespi, Elisa Gravagna, Jordi Rius, Oriol Vallcorba and Donatella Usai

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:74

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Assessment was performed of the air quality related risk to the conservation of cultural heritage objects in one urban and one rural indoor location in Romania, with expected different air quality related cons...

    Authors: Terje Grøntoft and Octaviana Marincas

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:73

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Indoor climate fluctuations are regarded as one of the major risks for the emergence of damage in historical works of art. For a safe preservation of their art objects museums try to minimize this risk, which ...

    Authors: R. A. Luimes, A. S. J. Suiker, A. J. M. Jorissen, P. H. J. C. van Duin and H. L. Schellen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:72

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  36. Content type: Commentary

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:71

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    The Commentary to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2018 6:70

    The Review to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2018 6:36

  37. Content type: Research article

    Through time, the large ceremonial centers of the Peruvian pre-Hispanic coast have played an important role as Pachacamac, renowned for its famous oracle, which was an important site for cult and pilgrimage, w...

    Authors: Denise Pozzi-Escot, Janet Oshiro, Gerardo Romano, Luigi Capozzoli, Rosa Lasaponara and Nicola Masini

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:68

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  38. Content type: Research article

    Alum-treated wooden artefacts suffer from extreme deterioration, and the stability of these objects and the salts they contain to variations in climate conditions is an important issue. Responses of potassium ...

    Authors: Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Calin C. Steindal, Olga Narygina and Susan Braovac

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:66

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  39. Content type: Research article

    We present new transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based electron diffraction characterization techniques (orientation imaging combined with 3D precession electron diffraction tomography-ADT) applied on cul...

    Authors: Stavros Nicolopoulos, Partha P. Das, Pablo J. Bereciartua, Fotini Karavasili, Nikolaos Zacharias, Alejandro Gómez Pérez, Athanassios S. Galanis, Edgar F. Rauch, Raúl Arenal, Joaquim Portillo, Josep Roqué-Rosell, Maria Kollia and Irene Margiolaki

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:64

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  40. Content type: Research article

    Iron-gall inks have been described as complexes of iron ions with gallic or tannic acids, available in gall extracts. To assess this working hypothesis, we have prepared medieval inks using ingredients and met...

    Authors: Rafael Javier Díaz Hidalgo, Ricardo Córdoba, Paula Nabais, Valéria Silva, Maria J. Melo, Fernando Pina, Natércia Teixeira and Victor Freitas

    Citation: Heritage Science 2018 6:63

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