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Table 4 Trace element composition of obsidians from Mediterranean and Near East areas

From: Mediterranean and Near East obsidian reference samples to establish artefacts provenance

  Mediterranean area Near East
  Aegean Islands Flegrean Islands Civita di Bagnoregio Eolie Islands Sardinia Island North Caucasus
As 7.71 (4.31-8.82) 21.9 (7.24-36.4) 24.9 (22.0-29.5) 18.1 (7.26-35.3) 12.3 (11.4-13.2) 12.6 (3.43-19.5)
Ba 542 (287-719) 298 (17.3-554) 613 (527-682) 206 (26.0-562) 271 (254-288) 331 (33.0-646)
Ce 46.2 (28.6-56.6) 170 (88.4-225) 115 (95.2-129) 161 (76.3-423) 42.1 (37.1-7.1) 105 (35.9-293)
Co 8.01 (7.31-8.53) 0.927 (0.151-1.51) 11.8 (11.5-12.0) 1.27 (0.201-7.84) 2.97 (2.91-3.02) 0.311 (0.062-0.590)
Cr 16.3 (0.53-47.0) 1.22 (0.713-2.13) 98.2 (94.8-100) 11.5 (0.763-61.4) 241 (223-265) 1.27 (0.464-3.60)
Cs 7.99 (5.33-9.54) 27.5 (13.6-44.1) 18.4 (18.3-18.6) 22.4 (2.99-52.5) 4.57 (4.53-4.60) 13.6 (5.19-23.0)
Eu 0.568 (0.271-0.813) 1.24 (0.060-2.09) 1.58 (1.52-1.64) 0.787 (0.082-4.16) 0.332 (0.312-.345) 0.685 (0.250-1.61)
Fe% 1.52 (0.65-1.99) 1.88 (0.98-2.44) 3.86 (3.82-3.98) 1.89 (0.967-6.25) 1.39 (1.37-1.4) 1.78 (0.61-4.94)
Hf 4.59 (2.30-7.47) 12.3 (9.01-20.5) 6.23 (6.06-6.32) 14.0 (6.81-57.4) 7.07 (6.95-7.26) 14.1 (3.56-41.7)
K% 3.34 (2.10-3.99) 6.99 (6.09-7.58) 1.98 (1.89-2.16) 5.16 (4.17-6.67) 4.71 (4.69-4.73) 4.32 (3.24-5.79)
La 12.0 (11.7-13.9) 27.4 (20.9-34.0) 19.9 (19.4-20.8) 30.2 (15.4-84.6) 7.80 (7.57-8.03) 10.4 (7.00-13.2)
Na% 2.11 (1.86-2.52) 2.48 (1.86-3.24) 0.723 (0.689-0.768) 2.66 (1.06-5.99) 2.43 (2.22-2.64) 2.32 (1.87-3.12)
Nd 231 (193-266) 618 (25.0-1162) 583 (524-624) 572 (52.0-2847) 361 (346-376) 444 (17.2-1730)
Ni 12.6 (4.70-23.0) 11.1 (4.60-19.3) 51.1 (47.4-55.9) 12.4 (.20-33.3) 116 (113-121) 14.2 (5.10-39.0)
Rb 126 (84.4-161) 324 (233-434) 217 (215-219) 308 (191-460) 248 (245-251) 218 (135-281)
Sb 0.752 (0.381-1.28) 0.842 (0.142-1.57) 0.703 (0.410-1.13) 0.707 (0.313-1.63) 1.44 (1.41-1.46) 0.579 (0.210-1.22)
Sc 3.92 (1.62-6.13) 2.15 (1.71-2.47) 14.3 (14.0-14.6) 2.65 (1.25-8.54) 4.77 (4.69-4.85) 2.87 (1.03-3.77)
Se 2.25 (1.89-2.88) 7.23 (5.40-11.0) 1.88 (0.1.71-2.00) 8.77 (2.85-44.5) 7.49 (7.07-7.92) 6.21 (3.19-11.0)
Sm 3.11 (2.59-4.11) 9.90 (7.12-14.0) 8.02 (7.52-8.43) 10.7 (5.95-37.5) 6.16 (6.04-6.27) 7.74 (1.92-22.1)
Sr 100 (6.60-186) 93.3 (4.30-294) 518 (454-580 26.9 (3.90-175) 9.15 (8.50-9.80) 16.4 (7.90-28.0)
Ta 0.998 (0.392-1.49) 4.09 (3.18-6.05) 1.06 (1.03-1.12) 4.88 (2.05-24.7) 3.86 (3.84-3.88) 3.45 (2.22-5.61)
Th 12.3 (4.65-16.5) 40.1 (23.3-58.9) 23.6 (23.2-23.9) 46.7 (20.5-71.0) 16.2 (16.0-16.4) 22.5 (16.8-32.7)
U 3.33 (1.45-4.70) 21.6 (6.76-62.9) 3.92 (3.85-3.99) 14.8 (4.55-30.1) 5.30 (5.19-5.41) 10.1 (8.77-13.5)
W 148 (10.0-300) 305 (59.0-592) 184 (172-192) 310 (174-580) 185 (175-194) 197 (136-279)
Yb 1.85 (1.13-2.61) 5.00 (3.43-7.01) 1.01 (2.50-2.96) 5.67 (2.37-16.7) 2.78 (2.75-2.89) 5.53 (1.93-15.3)
Zn 34.9 (20.2-49.1) 59.1 (15.2-114) 77.1 (72.3-80.6) 77.4 (32.8-402) 406 (384-429) 81.3 (35.7-217)
Zr 142 (79.5-228) 435 (285-696) 212 (211-214) 441 (202-1793) 193 (185-200) 439 (136-1214)
  1. Mean element levels along maximum and minimum values of obsidian collected in different well-defined deposits and analyzed by INAA (μg g−1, except Fe, K and K expressed as%).