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  1. Mechanical damage in oil paintings on canvas show up as cracks and loss of original paint. Several parameters can contribute to this type of degradation. These paintings have a complex layered structure, typic...

    Authors: D. S.-H. Lee, N.-S. KIM, M. Scharff, A. V. Nielsen, M. Mecklenburg, L. Fuster-López, L. Bratasz and C. K. Andersen
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:130
  2. The Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang is a poetic cultural route linked by Tang poetry which is the pinnacle of ancient Chinese poetry history, and is a cluster of cultural landscapes where nature and hu...

    Authors: Xuesong Xi, Xingrun An, Guangming Zhang and Shifan Liang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:129
  3. A terracotta Dancing Horse sculpture dating to the Tang Dynasty (China) and owned by the Cincinnati Art Museum (US) is the topic of the present investigation. Besides its intrinsic artistic and historical valu...

    Authors: C. Conti, M. Catrambone, C. Colombo, E. Possenti, K. M. Rectenwald, M. Realini and P. Strobbia
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:128
  4. Nero’s Temple at El-Ashmonein archaeological site, in Minia (middle of Egypt), is considered one of the most important of all temples of Nero. This temple dates back to 1520 BC–1075 BC in the New Kingdom and w...

    Authors: Abdelrhman Fahmy, Eduardo Molina-Piernas, Javier Martínez-López and Salvador Domínguez-Bella
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:125
  5. Granulation, an ancient metal processing technique mainly applied to gold, has originated from West Asia, and later appeared at many different archaeological sites across the Eurasia. The distribution of granu...

    Authors: Yong Shi, Yadi Wen, Xiaojun Li, Zhaojian Liu, Yumin Huang and Bei He
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:122
  6. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is a key point for preventive conservation since these species are known to impact the integrity of many artifacts including metals, papers, pigment and textiles. The probl...

    Authors: Stephane Rioual, Benoit Lescop, Julien Pellé, Gerusa de Alkmim Radicchi, Gilles Chaumat, Marie-Dominique Bruni, Johan Becker and Dominique Thierry
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:124
  7. This paper explores the characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial distribution of 889 national intangible cultural heritage sites in the Yellow River basin of China based on ArcGIS spatial analysi...

    Authors: Xin Nie, Yong Xie, Xiaoxiao Xie and Lunxing Zheng
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:121
  8. The Digital Humanities project Florence As It Was (http://​florenceasitwas.​wlu.​edu) seeks to reconstruct the architectural and decorative appearance of late Medieva...

    Authors: George R. Bent, David Pfaff, Mackenzie Brooks, Roxanne Radpour and John Delaney
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:118
  9. Gels were used to perform localized dechlorination treatments on ferrous or copper alloy archaeological objects. Agar gel (3%w) was used as a medium for the electrolyte, a 1%w KNO3 solution. Localized electrolysi...

    Authors: Clémence Fontaine, Stéphane Lemoine, Charlène Pelé-Meziani and Elodie Guilminot
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:117
  10. Bronze has been used for various applications since ancient times, and therefore, its preservation is critical. However, preserving bronze is challenging. The traditional inhibitor sealing method is limited by...

    Authors: Sheng Zhou, Zongshen Zhao, Heyi Mao, Lei Wang, Junyin Chen, Jiachang Chen and Xia Huang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:116
  11. To protect a canvas easel painting, a common conservation strategy is to add a back plate at the stretcher, creating a closed air void. This plate protects not only from dust but mainly from temperature and re...

    Authors: Santi Ferrer, Gema Campo-Francés, Josep Grau-Bové, Iris Bautista-Morenilla and Anna Nualart-Torroja
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:115
  12. Cellulose nitrate (CN) has been used in the past as support for photographic negatives and cinematographic films. This material is particularly unstable and can undergoes severe degradation due to thermal, pho...

    Authors: Marco Valente Chavez Lozano, Giorgia Sciutto, Silvia Prati and Rocco Mazzeo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:114
  13. The proposed method has been applied to a multi-phased settlement complex and pottery manufacturing centre in Ostrowite in northern Poland. In this study the radioactive isotope ratios method has been applied ...

    Authors: Magdalena Długosz-Lisiecka, Jerzy Sikora, Marcin Krystek, Dominik Płaza and Piotr Kittel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:113
  14. The generation of 3D models through Terrestrial Laser Scanning has proved to be valuable tools for the study, documentation and recreation of archaeological remains. In this context, it is described how to gen...

    Authors: Francisco Arias, Carlos Enríquez, Juan Manuel Jurado, Lidia Ortega, Antonio Romero-Manchado and Juan José Cubillas
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:112
  15. The study aimed to contribute to condition assessments of historic bridges in Izmir, Turkey and the estimation of their predictable functional lifetime after the Samos earthquake. This document is a summary of...

    Authors: Gokhan Kilic
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:111
  16. Historical colour charts provide a rich and often well-dated reference materials source for studying the chemical composition of all kinds of commercial brands of artists’ paints. This article presents the res...

    Authors: Clarimma Sessa, Christoph Steuer, Diego Quintero Balbas, Giorgia Sciutto, Silvia Prati and Heike Stege
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:109
  17. This paper presents a recent study on a Roman period marble sculpture depicting Empress Livia and the portraits of Germanicus and Drusus Minor, found at the praesidium of Asido (Medina Sidonia, Cádiz, Spain). The...

    Authors: Carlos P. Odriozola, José Beltrán Fortes, María Luisa Loza Azuaga and José María Martínez Blanes
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:108
  18. Most of papyrus documents have reached us in a very fragmentary state due to their excavation conditions and, because of the early history of papyrology, without an archaeological contextualisation. Traditiona...

    Authors: Alberto Nodar, Fernando José Pereira, Núria Ferrer and Roberto López
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:107
  19. As non-renewable cultural heritage, wall paintings play an important role in society. To reveal the trends in the scientific analysis of mural paintings, 845 relevant research articles published from 2011 to 2...

    Authors: Zhanyun Zhu, Xiuya Yao, Yaling Qin, Zhiyong Lu, Qinglin Ma, Xi Zhao and Liu Liu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:105
  20. Three-dimensional models of anatomy in wax preserved in university museums are rare artifacts of extraordinary technical complexity. In recent years, interest in them has increased among scholars who consider ...

    Authors: Emanuel Sterp Moga, Óscar Hernández-Muñoz, Javier del Río Esteban and Alicia Sánchez-Ortiz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:103
  21. The understanding of the connection between the value of an image and the value of the materials that were used to make it is limited, especially for stained-glass windows. However, such information can bring-...

    Authors: Mathilde Patin, Karin Nys, Hugo Thienpont and Wendy Meulebroeck
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:106
  22. A database was constructed of 134 reference plastic samples and their Raman spectra to aid in the rapid and accurate identification of the polymer composition of mid-twentieth century plastic purses and their ...

    Authors: Mary N. Boyden, Elyse M. Kleist, Courtney K. Asztalos and Timothy M. Korter
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:101
  23. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used in numerous paintings since its creation in the early 1920s. However, due to this relatively recent adoption by the art world, we have limited knowledge about the nature and ...

    Authors: Thomas Schmitt, Francesca Rosi, Edoardo Mosconi, Ken Shull, Simona Fantacci, Costanza Miliani and Kimberly Gray
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:99
  24. The structure of five rare filigree spheres from a seventeenth century shipwreck was examined in order to unravel their condition, manufacturing process and function. This study focuses on the application of n...

    Authors: Janneke van der Stok-Nienhuis, Tonny Beentjes, Dominique Ngan-Tillard, Lambert van Eijck, Ineke Joosten and Maarten R. van Bommel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:98
  25. The role of 3D virtual reconstruction of lost heritage artefacts is acquiring ever-greater importance, as a support for archaeological research and art history studies, as well as a vehicle for the cultural an...

    Authors: Francesco Gherardini and Simone Sirocchi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:96
  26. A multidisciplinary approach has been applied to investigate the production technology of a collection of copper-based artefacts found during archaeological excavation campaigns carried out in the Almohad neig...

    Authors: Carlo Bottaini, Susana Gómez Martínez, Rui Bordalo, Massimo Beltrame, José Mirão, Lígia Rafael and Nick Schiavon
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:97
  27. Base glasses from the eastern Mediterranean which circulated in Rome between the fifth and tenth centuries bear witness to the persistence of long-distance trade after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. LA-...

    Authors: Cristina Boschetti, Jan Kindberg Jacobsen, Claudio Parisi Presicce, Rubina Raja, Nadine Schibille and Massimo Vitti
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:95
  28. Gender transformation of Guanyin (Avalokitesvara in India) in China is an intrinsically fascinating research topic. Besides the inner source from the scriptures, literatures and epigraphs, iconological analysi...

    Authors: Yongwen Huang, Dingding Chen, Haiyan Wang and Lulu Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:93
  29. Willow-leaf shaped sword is a kind of exclusive bronze weapon popular only in the states of Ba and Shu during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC). Its prototype may originate from Central Asia and India and ...

    Authors: Dian Chen, Yingdong Yang, Tianyou Wang, Xiaoting Wang and Wugan Luo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:92
  30. Murals of Cave 256, Mogao Grottoes consist of several layers, with the outermost layer overlays all others. The bottom layer was painted in the five dynasties. The outermost layer was mural of the Song Dynasty...

    Authors: Biwen Shui, Zongren Yu, Qiang Cui, Zhuo Wang, Zhiyuan Yin, Manli Sun and Boming Su
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:89
  31. Red organic dye identification is an important topic for conservation of Japanese ukiyo-e prints. Of particular interest are the works of Suzuki Harunobu, who was working at the inception of full-color printmakin...

    Authors: Lyndsay N. Kissell, Trine K. Quady, Dario Durastanti, Samantha Springer, Jeannie Kenmotsu and Tami Lasseter Clare
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:94
  32. Dark and clear silicate glasses formed during an iron age vitrification event ≈ 1500 years ago at the Broborg hillfort near Uppsala, Sweden have been analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with...

    Authors: Edward P. Vicenzi, Thomas Lam, Jamie L. Weaver, Andrew A. Herzing, John S. McCloy, Rolf Sjöblom and Carolyn I. Pearce
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:90
  33. The Tunpu settlements are the historical product of the co-evolution development of the unique geographical and cultural environment of Guizhou and the military defense policies of Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 AD),...

    Authors: Hongyi Ge, Zhitai Wang, Yu Bao, Zongsheng Huang, Xintong Chen, Bin Wu and Yunwei Qiao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:85
  34. Pterosaur eggs can offer information about pterosaur reproductive strategies and are extremely precious because only a small number of specimens have been discovered. Previous studies have mainly focused on mo...

    Authors: Ying Li, Xufeng Zhu, Qiang Wang, Shunxing Jiang, Yimin Yang, Wugan Luo and Xiaolin Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:84
  35. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy is an analytical technique used to identify chemical elements that has found widespread use in the cultural heritage sector to characterise artists' materials including th...

    Authors: Cerys Jones, Nathan S. Daly, Catherine Higgitt and Miguel R. D. Rodrigues
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:88

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