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  1. The Great Wall of China is one of the largest architectural heritage sites globally, and its sustainability is a significant concern. However, its large extent and diverse characteristics are challenges for de...

    Authors: Hang Xu, Fulong Chen and Wei Zhou

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:71

    Content type: Research article

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  2. A multi-analytical study was designed to characterise historical coated plaster surfaces. The method was applied to investigate the surface coatings of the nineteenth-century plaster cast of the tombstone of t...

    Authors: Valentina Risdonne, Charlotte Hubbard, Johanna Puisto and Charis Theodorakopoulos

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:70

    Content type: Research article

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  3. While the chemistry of artists’ paints has previously been studied and reviewed, these studies only capture a portion of the properties affecting the response of paint materials. The mechanical properties of a...

    Authors: Gwen dePolo, Marc Walton, Katrien Keune and Kenneth R. Shull

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:68

    Content type: Review

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  4. The paper discusses a recent find of a copper alloy light cannon discovered at the Old Castle in Grodno, Belarus. The research aim was to analyse the artefact in all its possible aspects, including archaeologi...

    Authors: Grzegorz Żabiński, Piotr Strzyż, Tomasz Goryczka, Krzysztof Aniołek and Ewelina Miśta-Jakubowska

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:67

    Content type: Research article

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  5. In this study we investigate the impact of the addition of colourless glass particles to red glazes, as seen in many 15th-17th-century easel paintings. With the use of reconstructions, we examined the influenc...

    Authors: Mitra Almasian, Mathilde Tiennot, Lionel D. Fiske and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:66

    Content type: Research article

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  6. From the mid-1800s to the late 1960s, conservation by alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O—potassium aluminium sulphate), using various recipes, was a common method to prevent shrinkage and to strengthen waterlogged archa...

    Authors: Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Malin Sahlstedt, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini and Susan Braovac

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:69

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The Gongsanseong Fortress in Gongju, Republic of Korea, is one of the most essential remains for historical research of Baekje Kingdom, and reinforces on the fortress wall has continuously been implemented sin...

    Authors: Jun Hyoung Park, Seok Tae Park and Chan Hee Lee

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:65

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Over the last few years, the Federal Institute for material research (BAM, Berlin) together with the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMC, University of Hamburg) have initiated a systematic materi...

    Authors: Tea Ghigo and María Jesús Albarrán Martínez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:62

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Glass beads excavated from Nanhai I shipwreck were investigated with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS), Raman spectroscopy, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma m...

    Authors: Chenxin Tian, Yihang Zhou, Kai Wang, Jian Sun, Yong Cui and Dongbo Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:61

    Content type: Research article

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  10. This work concerns the study of colors and dyes identified on archaeological textiles from the Atacama Desert. The different garments and ornaments come from the excavation of two important pre-Columbian cemet...

    Authors: Marcela Sepúlveda, Cecilia Lemp Urzúa, José Cárcamo-Vega, Edgar Casanova-Gónzalez, Sebastián Gutiérrez, Miguel Ángel Maynez-Rojas, Benjamín Ballester and José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:59

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Based on the research results and practical engineering experience pertaining to the protection and reinforcement of the cliff of the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, China, this paper presents a method that is mai...

    Authors: Xudong Wang, Yanwu Wang, Qinglin Guo, Qiangqiang Pei and Guojing Zhao

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:58

    Content type: Review

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  12. The growing importance of publishing art collections online has led to increasingly strict tolerances on digital photography of art objects. There are two internationally recognized sets of guidelines for crea...

    Authors: Eric Kirchner, Carola van Wijk, Henni van Beek and Tammo Koster

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:57

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Silver art is an important feature of the Tang dynasty in China and the manufacturing center for silver shifted from north to south after the mid-eighth century CE. The typology, stylistics, and iconography of...

    Authors: Panpan Tan, Junchang Yang and Xinlai Ren

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:55

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Tsantsas, commonly referred to as “shrunken heads”, are unique and valuable antiquities that were produced by the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún/Aguaruna, Wampís/Huambisa, and Candoshi-Shampra (SAAWC) peoples until the mi...

    Authors: Craig D. Byron, Adam M. Kiefer, Joanna Thomas, Sagar Patel, Amy Jenkins, Anthony L. Fratino and Todd Anderson

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:50

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:60

  15. The Huexotzinco Codex is one of the earliest surviving manuscripts from the early colonial period of Mexico. The codex pertains to the legal case of conquistador Hernán Cortés and contains paintings and docume...

    Authors: Tana Elizabeth Villafana, Mary Elizabeth Haude and Amanda Satorius

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:54

    Content type: Research article

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  16. This study researches the loyalty of travelers to destinations which include material cultural heritage. It analyzes the loyalty of visitors to a destination with cultural heritage sites in order to provide re...

    Authors: Ricardo David Hernández-Rojas, Juan Antonio Jimber del Río, Alberto Ibáñez Fernández and Arnaldo Vergara-Romero

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:52

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Iron gall ink was used in the Western world as a permanent writing material already in late Roman times and throughout the Middle Ages, until it became obsolete in the twentieth century. There is much interest...

    Authors: A. Lerf, F. E. Wagner, M. Dreher, T. Espejo and J.-L. Pérez-Rodríguez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:49

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Technology employed by the ancient goldsmiths is traceable through archaeometallurgy. Using non-destructive analytical methods, namely, a 3D digital microscopy and a scanning electron microscopy with energy di...

    Authors: Yan Liu, Rui Li, Junchang Yang, Ruiliang Liu, Guoxing Zhao and Panpan Tan

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:46

    Content type: Research article

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  19. In this paper, a comparative study was conducted on the extraction effects of six agents for collagen-based mural painting binders. These agents were used to extract the residual proteins in the non-aged and t...

    Authors: Jianghao Du, Zhanyun Zhu, Junchang Yang, Jia Wang and Xiaotong Jiang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:45

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Salt weathering is one of the most important causes of deterioration in the built environment. Two crucial aspects need further investigation to understand the processes and find suitable measures: the impact ...

    Authors: Sebastiaan Godts, Scott Allan Orr, Julie Desarnaud, Michael Steiger, Katrin Wilhelm, Hilde De Clercq, Veerle Cnudde and Tim De Kock

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:44

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The paper presents a diagnosis of damage to heritage structures based on the case of the historic church in Kożuchów. The Church of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary dates back to the thirteenth cent...

    Authors: Krzysztof Raszczuk and Anna Karolak

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:43

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Colour changes of cultural heritage objects can be related with degradation of materials, thus a proper colour monitoring system can be used to detect conservation problems. With this purpose, a monitoring met...

    Authors: Blanca Ramírez Barat, Emilio Cano, María Teresa Molina, Miguel Antonio Barbero-Álvarez, Juan Antonio Rodrigo and José Manuel Menéndez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:41

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The collection of the American Museum of Natural History, New York, includes a set of four elaborately painted 19th-century Tsimshian house posts that have been on continuous open display for more than a centu...

    Authors: Federica Pozzi, Elena Basso, Samantha Alderson, Judith Levinson, Madeleine Neiman and Soraya Alcalá

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:42

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. One of the most important alteration factors for archaeological sites is the deposition of dust, primarily onto horizontal surfaces, because it affects both the conservation state of the remains and their appe...

    Authors: Cristina Cabello Briones, Santiago Mayorga Pinilla, Daniel Vázquez Moliní and Antonio Álvarez Fernández-Balbuena

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:40

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The implementation of multidisciplinary research approaches is an essential prerequisite to obtain comprehensive insights into the life and works of the old masters and their timeline in the production of the ...

    Authors: Johannes Edvardsson, Andrea Seim, Justin Davies and Joost Vander Auwera

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:39

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Historic legal deeds are one of the most abundant resources in British archives, but also one of the most neglected. Despite the millions that survive, we know remarkably little about their manufacture, includ...

    Authors: Sean Paul Doherty, Stuart Henderson, Sarah Fiddyment, Jonathan Finch and Matthew J. Collins

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:29

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The Leizhou Peninsula in China is very famous for its unique folk art creation, especially for the stonework, like the basalt sculptures of the Leizhou Stone Dogs, which have a history of more than two thousan...

    Authors: Yali Wang, Huan Zhang, Xiaobo Liu, Xiaoqing Liu and Wei Song

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:36

    Content type: Research article

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  28. From the invention of Perkin’s Mauve in 1856, to publication of the first edition of the Colour Index in 1924, more than 1200 synthetic organic colourants were introduced. Some achieved commercial success, while ...

    Authors: Eric Hagan and Jennifer Poulin

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:33

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. Valvasor's library is a unique example of a Seventeenth century personal library, including over 7300 prints and 1530 books. Today, it is kept in the Metropolitan Library of the Zagreb Archdiocese which is par...

    Authors: Andreja Dragojević, Diana Gregor-Svetec, Jedert Vodopivec Tomažič and Branka Lozo

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:35

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, original photographs were sent to publishers so that they could be reproduced in print. The photographs often needed to be reworked with overpainting and masking, and...

    Authors: Elena Basso, Federica Pozzi, Jessica Keister and Elizabeth Cronin

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:34

    Content type: Research article

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  31. This work presents the first proof of concept for the use of molecular fluorescence signatures in medieval colours based on lac dye and brazilwood lake pigments. These two important medieval dyes were tested a...

    Authors: Paula Nabais, Maria J. Melo, João A. Lopes, Márcia Vieira, Rita Castro and Aldo Romani

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:32

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Recent archaeological excavations carried out in the western suburbs of Cordoba (Spain) brought to light numerous fragments of archaeological glass from the caliphal period (929–1031 CE). The typological and c...

    Authors: Jorge De Juan Ares, Yasmina Cáceres Gutiérrez, Maudilio Moreno Almenara and Nadine Schibille

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:31

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Environmental changes and human activities can cause serious degradation of murals, where sootiness is one of the most common problems of ancient Chinese indoor murals. In order to improve the visual quality o...

    Authors: Ning Cao, Shuqiang Lyu, Miaole Hou, Wanfu Wang, Zhenhua Gao, Ahmed Shaker and Youqiang Dong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:30

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Nanoindentation and dynamic mechanical analysis were used to measure changes in the surface and bulk mechanical properties of Winsor & Newton Yellow Ochre oil paint films following exposure to deionized water,...

    Authors: Ashley Amanda Freeman, Judith Lee, Cecil Krarup Andersen, Naoki Fujisawa, Michał Łukomski and Bronwyn Ormsby

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:28

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The hollowing deterioration of stone relics required effective non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for their timely restoration and maintenance. To this end, a new NDT method based on terahertz (THz) technol...

    Authors: Tianhua Meng, Rong Huang, Yuhe Lu, Hongmei Liu, Jianguang Ren, Guozhong Zhao and Weidong Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:24

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Johannes van der Plicht, Jacopo La Nasa, Erika Ribechini, Maria Perla Colombini, Thomas Delbey, Lilian Skytte, Simone Schiavone, Ulla Kjær, Poul Grinder-Hansen and Lautaro Roig Lanzillotta

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:23

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Heritage Science 2021 9:14

  37. This work presents the first results of the iconographic study and analytical characterisation of a set of four stained-glass panels that are part of the collection of National Palace of Pena (Sintra, Portugal...

    Authors: Alexandra Rodrigues, Mathilda Coutinho, Andreia Machado, Bruno A. Martinho, Luís Cerqueira Alves, Maria Filomena Macedo and Márcia Vilarigues

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:22

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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