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  1. The dolmen of Guadalperal (Spain) became well known in 2019 when the waters of the reservoir in which it had long been submerged became so depleted as to leave it above water and highly visible. This gave rise...

    Authors: Enrique Cerrillo-Cuenca, José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco, Primitiva Bueno-Ramírez, Juan Antonio Pérez-Álvarez, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann and Manuel Sánchez-Fernández

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:114

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Using data from simulated and actual case studies, this paper assesses the accuracy and precision of Bayesian estimates for the constructional date of medieval masonry buildings, generated from the radiocarbon...

    Authors: Mark Thacker

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:113

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The viability of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) for the differentiation of red chalk drawing media was investigated, focusing on the group of drawings from the workshop of Giovanni Battista Piran...

    Authors: Maria Krämer, Ute Henniges, Irene Brückle, Laura Lenfant and Kirsten Drüppel

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:112

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Lightning strike is one of the natural disasters to the roof components of ancient buildings. To investigate the causes and damage effects of lightning strikes on the roofing glazed tiles of ancient buildings,...

    Authors: Jingxiao Li, Zhiling Fang, Lin Fu, Shangchen Fu, Lihua Shi, Yun Li and Peidong Huo

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:110

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Several well-preserved polychrome lacquered coffins were found in Zhang Dong family’s tombs in Shaanxi, China, rare in the history of archaeological excavation. In the lacquered coffins, a large amount of dark...

    Authors: Lang Guo, Yaxu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Xing Zhao, Fuwei Yang, Meiman Peng, Jinyi Guo, Kun Li and Xiaomeng Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:109

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Asbads (Persian windmills) present a multifaceted view of using heritage science. These mills are no longer in use due to advances in technology and the advent of new grinding systems. Windmills show perfect h...

    Authors: Mahsa Zarrabi and Nima Valibeig

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:108

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Commonly exhibited in museum galleries, animal mummies have been the focus of interest of both visitors and researchers alike. The study of these animal remains not only provides new insights into embalming te...

    Authors: Diego Tamburini, Joanne Dyer, Marie Vandenbeusch, Matilde Borla, Debora Angelici, Maurizio Aceto, Cinzia Oliva, Federica Facchetti, Sara Aicardi, Patrizia Davit and Monica Gulmini

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:106

    Content type: Research article

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  8. We present reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) as a documentation tool for visualizing and recording the treatment of coins. RTI—a computational photograph technique that calculates light positions—allows...

    Authors: Jihyun Min, Sanghoon Jeong, Kangwoo Park, Yeonghwan Choi, Daewon Lee, Jaehong Ahn, Donghwan Har and Sangdoo Ahn

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:105

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. The effect of relative humidity (RH) and light on the development of epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) in Winsor & Newton cadmium yellow (CY) and French ultramarine (FU) artists’ oil colour paints was investigated. Tube pain...

    Authors: Jessie Harrison, Judith Lee, Bronwyn Ormsby and David J. Payne

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:107

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Having extremely high artistic, scientific and social values, earthen sites are widely distributed in China and are important human cultural relic resources. Due to accumulated natural erosions (from rain and ...

    Authors: Yumin Du, Wenwu Chen, Kai Cui, Wenqiang Dong, Shuai Zhang and Qiyong Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:103

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Jacques-Louis David’s (1748–1825) iconic portrait of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) and Marie-Anne Lavoisier (Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, 1758–1836) has come to epitomize a modern couple born of the Enlig...

    Authors: Silvia A. Centeno, Dorothy Mahon, Federico Carò and David Pullins

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:84

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Space technology offers effective tools to monitor the status of World Natural Heritage sites. East Rennell Island, which covers approximately 37,000 hectares (ha) and a marine area extending three nautical mi...

    Authors: Sijia Huo, Mengmeng Wang, Guolong Chen, Huiqin Shu and Ruixia Yang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:101

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Paintings and painted surfaces are considered to be extremely complex due to their multitude of materials and thus form the basis for particularly intricate Cultural Heritage studies. The combination of Scanni...

    Authors: E. Palamara, P. P. Das, S. Nicolopoulos, L. Tormo Cifuentes, E. Kouloumpi, A. Terlixi and N. Zacharias

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:100

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Earthen cultural ruins and their subsurface environments act as carriers or support for aboveground cultural heritage artefacts, and groundwater has been identified as the most important factor accelerating th...

    Authors: Jing Cao, Bingjie Mai, Hua Chen, Yuhu Li and Juanli Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:99

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Thirteen Zhou Dynasty bronze vessels and two slags from Zongyang County along the north bank of the Yangtze River in Anhui were analyzed by LA-MC-ICP-MS and EDXRF. The results of lead isotope analysis showed t...

    Authors: Yanjie Wang, Guofeng Wei, Qiang Li, Xiaoping Zheng and Danchun Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:97

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Korean hand papermaking is a renowned cultural tradition in the Korean peninsula. It is still practiced while scientific analysis of paper itself from a large data set is rare. In this study, a set of more tha...

    Authors: Bin Han, Léon-Bavi Vilmont, Hyoung-Jin Kim, Bertrand Lavédrine, Shouji Sakamoto and Michel Sablier

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:96

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The Isabel II dam is a monumental hydraulic structure built in the middle of the nineteenth century in Spain. In this study, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry was used as a data acquisition techniqu...

    Authors: Patricio Martínez-Carricondo, Fernando Carvajal-Ramírez, Lourdes Yero-Paneque and Francisco Agüera-Vega

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:95

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Many wooden Chinese historic buildings are destroyed due to the ravages of frequent fire disasters. The fire risk of historic buildings are highly enlarged since a long-time weathered wooden structures in the ...

    Authors: Wei Ke, Wanyu Yang, Biao Zhou, Kai Wang, Jiazhi Sun, Xukun Sun, Min Xu, Qingqing Chen, Bo Qiu, Wei Wang and Xuan Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:93

    Content type: Research article

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  19. This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to analyze textual sources from nomadic civilization. Linguistic analysis has been increasingly used due to the emergence of a huge array of autochthonous and au...

    Authors: Akmaral Ibrayeva, Assemgul Temirkhanova, Zaure Kartova, Tlegen Sadykov, Nurbolat Abuov and Anatoliy Pleshakov

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:90

    Content type: Research article

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  20. An ancient table zither qin, an emblematic stringed instrument of traditional Chinese music, has been rediscovered in the museum collection of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (inv.4224, CNAM collec...

    Authors: Marie-Gabrielle Durier, Alexandre Girard-Muscagorry, Christine Hatté, Tiphaine Fabris, Cyrille Foasso, Witold Nowik and Stéphane Vaiedelich

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:89

    Content type: Research article

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  21. A multianalytical approach was used to characterize the materials in the “Vienna Moamin”, an outstanding richly illustrated manuscript from the late thirteenth century, which was made in Italy and is now kept ...

    Authors: Wilfried Vetter, Bernadette Frühmann, Federica Cappa and Manfred Schreiner

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:87

    Content type: Research article

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  22. The joint development of cultural heritage protection and tourism is an essential part of sustainable heritage tourism. Mount Lushan in China is such a site which in the past has had shortcomings in heritage p...

    Authors: Cai Zhenrao, Fang Chaoyang, Zhang Qian and Chen Fulong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:86

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Natural yellow plant dyes and traditional medicines were used widely on historical papers in ancient China for religious reasons and conservation considerations. This study aims to evaluate some traditional ye...

    Authors: Yanbing Luo and Xiujuan Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:85

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Decoration with feathers is a universal phenomenon in human history. Objects decorated with feathers were regarded as fine artworks and hence were enormously prized. In ancient China, dotting a surface with bl...

    Authors: An Gu, Na Wang, Yan-ju Kong, Jia-yu Hou, Gen Li and Yong Lei

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:82

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. A collection of pottery vessels uncovered during the first season of excavations in the Deh Dumen Bronze Age graveyard (the second half of the third millennium BC) located in south-western Iran were studied by...

    Authors: Omid Oudbashi, Reza Naseri, Giuseppe Cultrone, Isabel Egartner and Anna Arizzi

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:83

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Depicting the temporal and spatial evolution pattern of global world cultural heritage systematically and finely is the basis of heritage recognition and protection. In this study, 869 world cultural heritage ...

    Authors: Liang Yongqi, Yang Ruixia, Wang Pu, Yang Anlin and Chen Guolong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:80

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Scratches on cine-film significantly affect the quality of projected film images forming blackness or brightness. Only blackness can be restored by restoration dispersion. However, why the scratches can or can...

    Authors: Qingmeng Xu, Feifan Xu, Hongjie Luo and Daodao Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. In this investigation on the mechanical behaviour of paint films, we use a new ferrule-top nanoindentation protocol developed for cultural heritage studies to examine the impact of repeated relative humidity v...

    Authors: Mathilde Tiennot, Davide Iannuzzi and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Extending the life cycle of heritage buildings through their adaptive reuse can ensure their survival and is concordant with the policy of sustainable development. Selecting a new form of use for heritage buil...

    Authors: Grzegorz Śladowski, Bartłomiej Szewczyk, Krzysztof Barnaś, Olga Kania and Janusz Barnaś

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:76

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. The most important inhibitors used in bronze disease are BTA and AMT. While these inhibitors control corrosion, they are toxic and cancerous. In this study, the acacia fruit extract (200 ppm to 1800 ppm) was u...

    Authors: Vahid Pourzarghan and Bahman Fazeli-Nasab

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. According to various historic accounts and material evidence, the practice of producing lime mortars by mixing the quicklime with the sand (i.e. hot-mixing) before first slaking it with water was much more com...

    Authors: Cecilia Pesce, Martha C. Godina, Alison Henry and Giovanni Pesce

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:72

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Historical costumes are part of cultural heritage. Unlike architectural monuments, they are very fragile, which exacerbates the problems of their protection and popularisation. A big help in this can be the di...

    Authors: Jerzy Montusiewicz, Marek Miłosz, Jacek Kęsik and Kamil Żyła

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. The Great Wall of China is one of the largest architectural heritage sites globally, and its sustainability is a significant concern. However, its large extent and diverse characteristics are challenges for de...

    Authors: Hang Xu, Fulong Chen and Wei Zhou

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:71

    Content type: Research article

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  34. A multi-analytical study was designed to characterise historical coated plaster surfaces. The method was applied to investigate the surface coatings of the nineteenth-century plaster cast of the tombstone of t...

    Authors: Valentina Risdonne, Charlotte Hubbard, Johanna Puisto and Charis Theodorakopoulos

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:70

    Content type: Research article

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  35. While the chemistry of artists’ paints has previously been studied and reviewed, these studies only capture a portion of the properties affecting the response of paint materials. The mechanical properties of a...

    Authors: Gwen dePolo, Marc Walton, Katrien Keune and Kenneth R. Shull

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:68

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  36. The paper discusses a recent find of a copper alloy light cannon discovered at the Old Castle in Grodno, Belarus. The research aim was to analyse the artefact in all its possible aspects, including archaeologi...

    Authors: Grzegorz Żabiński, Piotr Strzyż, Tomasz Goryczka, Krzysztof Aniołek and Ewelina Miśta-Jakubowska

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:67

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. In this study we investigate the impact of the addition of colourless glass particles to red glazes, as seen in many 15th-17th-century easel paintings. With the use of reconstructions, we examined the influenc...

    Authors: Mitra Almasian, Mathilde Tiennot, Lionel D. Fiske and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. From the mid-1800s to the late 1960s, conservation by alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O—potassium aluminium sulphate), using various recipes, was a common method to prevent shrinkage and to strengthen waterlogged archa...

    Authors: Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Malin Sahlstedt, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini and Susan Braovac

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. The Gongsanseong Fortress in Gongju, Republic of Korea, is one of the most essential remains for historical research of Baekje Kingdom, and reinforces on the fortress wall has continuously been implemented sin...

    Authors: Jun Hyoung Park, Seok Tae Park and Chan Hee Lee

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:65

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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