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Table 2 Geotechnical characterization of the soil layers underneath the (St. Sergius) Abu Serga church in old Cairo area

From: 3D finite element coupled analysis model for geotechnical and complex structural problems of historic masonry structures: conservation of Abu Serga church, Cairo, Egypt

Soil type Liquid limit (WL) % Shrinkage limit (WS) % Plasticity limit (WP) % Dry unit weight (γunsat) Saturated unit weight (γsat) Specific gravity (Gs) Permeability Kx = ky (m/day) Initial void ration (e) Compression index Cc Young’s modulus E kN/m2 Poisson’s ratio Eoed kN/m2 Soil cohesion c (kN/m2) Friction angle (ϕ)°
Clay 45–60 17 20–45 20 23 2.7 1.52 * 10−4 1.84 0.3 1500 0.4 1204 50 27
Sand 20 0 18 21   6000 0.35   0 34