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Table 1 Glossary of useful terminology

From: So you want to do biocodicology? A field guide to the biological analysis of parchment

Glossary: DNA Glossary: Proteins
aDNA: ancient DNA, DNA extracted from ancient specimens. Due to degradation processes aDNA is of lower quality than modern genetic material Amino acid: building blocks of proteins, there are 20 different types
Genomics: the branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes Enzyme: protein molecules in cells which work as catalysts, speeding up chemical reactions in the body
Metagenomics: study of genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples LC–MSMS: Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, frequently used in proteomics
Microbiome: the combined genetic material of the microorganisms in a particular environment (including the body or a part of the body) MALDI-TOF MS: matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, frequently used for PMF
mtDNA: mitochondrial DNA, only inherited by the female line Peptide: short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds
NGS: next generation sequencing, also known as high-throughput sequencing are technologies that allow for sequencing of DNA much more quickly and cheaply than the previous methods PMF: peptide mass fingerprinting, a method of protein identification based on a mass spectrum of a mixture of peptides that come from a digested protein
SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism, a substitution of a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome Proteomics: branch of molecular biology concerned with the large-scale study of proteins and their functions