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Table 3 Summary of most useful imaging and FORS markers for identification of ink colorants on sized paper

From: Creation and reference characterization of Edo period Japanese woodblock printing ink colorant samples using multimodal imaging and reflectance spectroscopy

ColorantImaging markersFORS markers
Blue
 DayflowerVIL: luminescesIRR: reflectsIRRFC: pink590a, 645a
 IndigoVIL: no luminescenceIRR: reflectsIRRFC: pink660a
 Prussian blueVIL: absorbsIRR: absorbsIRRFC: dark blue/purple600–1000a, 2365a
Red
 SafflowerVIL/UVL: luminescesIRRFC: yellowUVRFC: red-brown530a
 SappanwoodVIL: luminesces
UVL: absorbs
IRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: brown530a
 MadderVIL/UVL: luminescesIRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: red-brown510a, 525a
 CochinealVIL/UVL: luminescesIRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: green520a, 555a
 KermesVIL/UVL: luminescesIRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: gray520a, 555a
 LacVIL/UVL: luminescesIRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: blue520a, 555a
 Red ochreVIL/UVL: absorbsIRRFC: orange-redUVRFC: purple-brown500a, 650a, 900a
 VermilionVIL/UVL: absorbsIRRFC: yellowUVRFC: purple-brown590–600i
 Red leadVIL/UVL: absorbsIRRFC: yellowUVRFC: red565i
Yellow
 Flavonoids*VIL: no luminescenceUVL: absorbsUVRFC: brown~ 460i
 Amur cork treeVIL: luminescesUVL: luminescesUVRFC: orange440–450a, ~ 495i
 GardeniaVIL: luminescesUVL: luminescesUVRFC: pink450a, 485a, 460i, 510i
 GambogeVIL: no luminescenceUVL: absorbsUVRFC: orange440–450a, ~ 495i
 TurmericVIL: luminescesUVL: luminescesUVRFC: pink440–450a, ~ 495i
 Yellow ochreVIL: no luminescenceUVL: absorbsUVRFC: pink500a, 650a, 900a
 OrpimentVIL: no luminescenceUVL: absorbsUVRFC: pink485i
  1. Flavonoid yellows include rice plant, pagoda tree, mountain peach, and Toringo crabapple which do not luminesce with the exception of pagoda tree
  2. aAbsorption
  3. iInflection point