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Table 1 The concentrations of main ions in the water seepage at different stages

From: The long-term monitoring and evaluation of cement-based grout used to govern the water seepage of karst caves in China

ContentConcentration (mg/l)
RainwaterWater seepage at Qinglin caveWater seepage at Yanxia cave
Before interventionAfter 1 monthAfter 12 monthsBefore interventionAfter 1 monthAfter 12 months
Na+0.731.771.563.441.382.743.44
K+4.531.954.291.101.661.32
Mg2+0.550.330.400.430.430.410.42
Ca2+6.0439.5563.0683.6031.0060.9964.86
Cl3.784.5518.2610.653.0116.297.19
SO42−3.0918.1033.4825.3413.6824.8716.96
pH5.917.127.267.437.327.467.63