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Table 3 Beds of LGL and LCL present on the Casa Ippolito site and its surrounding environs [1, 34]

From: Architectural ruins: geoculture of the anatomy of buildings as illustrated by Casa Ippolito, Malta





Lower globigerina limestone


Dark stone; does not withstand exposure

Foundations and other instances where protection from the atmosphere is present


Pale yellow limestone, turns into light reddish-brown colour after some time; composed of minute fossils; easily split into thin slabs; hardens when exposed to air; weathers very well; no fossils are present except for remains of saurians etc. and a few shells

Building stone, paving stone, masonry lintels, and roofing slabs to span between masonry arches and beams

Lower coralline limestone


Transition (Scutella) bed; soft; often mixed and merging into the calcareous sands of the overlying stratum; fine-grained; not durable; Echini project outwards when stone decays away

Not much used in building