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Table 1 Summary of the techniques and defining characteristics (age of the paint, type of samples, the amount of strain applied to the sample, how invasive the technique is, and the relevant mechanical properties) for each technique discussed within this review.

From: After the paint has dried: a review of testing techniques for studying the mechanical properties of artists’ paint

Technique Paint age Sample type Applied strain Sample size Invasiveness Relevant data
Tensile testing Dried/aged paint Model systems Large strain Bulk Invasive Elastic stiffness, ultimate mechanical properties (\(E,\,e_{f},\,\sigma _{\mathrm {T}}\))
Dynamic mechanical analysis Dried/aged paint Model systems Small strain Bulk Invasive Solid/liquid-like behavior (\(E^{*},\,\mathrm {tan}\phi\))
Shear rheometry Fresh Paint Model systems Small strain Bulk Invasive Viscosity (\(\eta\))
Quartz crystal microbalance Fresh & dried/aged paint Model systems Small strain Thin-film Invasive Elastic stiffness, swelling (\(d\rho ,\,|G^{*}|\rho ,\,\phi\))
Nanoindentation Dried/aged paint Model systems & Historic samples Small strain Single point/small sample size Minimally invasive Elastic stiffness, hardness (\(E_{r},\,H\))
Laser shearography Dried/aged paint Model systems & Historic samples Small strain Area of painting Non-invasive Strain maps
Finite element \(\mathrm {Analysis^{+}}\) Fresh & dried/aged paint Model systems & historic samples Simulated large and/or small strain Any sample size Predictive mechanical responses
Vibration Studies Dried/aged paint  Model systems Small strain Area of painting Minimally invasive Damage risk
Single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance Dried/aged paint Model systems & historic samples _ Single point/small sample size Non-invasive Comparative rtiffness
  1. Definitions for mechanical properties in relevant data: E: elastic modulus, \(e_{f}\): failure strain, \(\sigma _{\mathrm {T}}\): ultimate tensile strength, \(E^{*}\): complex elastic modulus, \(\mathrm {tan}\phi\): loss tangent, \(\eta\): viscosity, \(d\rho\): areal density, \(|G^{*}|\rho\): magnitude of the complex shear modulus multiplied by the density, \(E_{r}\): reduced elastic modulus, H: hardness. \(^{+}\)Indicates that the technique is a numerical method