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Table 1 Summary of findings in the samples’ layers

From: A multi-analytical study of historical coated plaster surfaces: the examination of a nineteenth-century V&A cast of a tombstone

Sample Type Notes No. of layers Layers Plaster Interface Coating Overpaint
1 Dust Fibres and mixture of organic and inorganic material
2 Plaster from the inner bulk   Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Al, Mg, Si, diterpenic resin
3 Cross-section   3 2. Dark layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al; Fe, Ti and traces of Na, Cl and K, diterpenic resin
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
4 Cross-section Edge area of sampling 4 3. Purple layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of K, Ba, Zn, Cl and P, diterpenic resin Fe, Si and Ti, traces of K, Ba, Zn, Cl and P, drying oil modified alkyd paint
2. Dark layer
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
5 Cross-section   3 2. Dark layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Ti, diterpenic resin Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of Mg, Ti, Na, Fe and K, diterpenic resin
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
6 Cross-section Area of repair 3 2. Dark layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Ti, traces of K and Fe, organic medium Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly K, Fe, Si and Al, traces of Na, Pb and Cl, organic medium
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
7 Cross-section Area of repair 2 1. Yellowish and undefined layer with large orange and black particles Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, organic medium Mostly Fe and Ba, traces of Mg, K and Cl, organic medium
0. Plaster bulk
8 Cross-section Fluorescent varnish 4 3. Varnish Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Cl, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of K, Fe and Na, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch
2. Dark layer
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
9 Cross-section   3 2. Dark layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Al, Sr and Fe, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si, Al, Mg, Sr and Fe, traces of K and Ti, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
10 Cross-section   3 2. Dark layer Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, organic medium Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of K and Cl, organic medium
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
11 Cross-section   4 3. Varnish Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, organic medium Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of Fe and Mg, organic medium
2. Dark layer
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
12 Cross-section Fluorescent varnish 4 3. Varnish Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of P, Cl and Fe, organic medium
2. Dark layer
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk
13 Cross-section Fluorescent varnish 4 3. Varnish Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin Intermediate of plaster and dark layer Mostly Si and Al, traces of Fe, Mg, Cl, Ti and Na, diterpenic resin
2. Dark layer
1. Yellowish and undefined layer
0. Plaster bulk