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Table 1 Summary of findings in the samples’ layers

From: A multi-analytical study of historical coated plaster surfaces: the examination of a nineteenth-century V&A cast of a tombstone

Sample

Type

Notes

No. of layers

Layers

Plaster

Interface

Coating

Overpaint

1

Dust

Fibres and mixture of organic and inorganic material

2

Plaster from the inner bulk

 

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Al, Mg, Si, diterpenic resin

3

Cross-section

 

3

2. Dark layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al; Fe, Ti and traces of Na, Cl and K, diterpenic resin

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

4

Cross-section

Edge area of sampling

4

3. Purple layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of K, Ba, Zn, Cl and P, diterpenic resin

Fe, Si and Ti, traces of K, Ba, Zn, Cl and P, drying oil modified alkyd paint

2. Dark layer

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

5

Cross-section

 

3

2. Dark layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Ti, diterpenic resin

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of Mg, Ti, Na, Fe and K, diterpenic resin

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

6

Cross-section

Area of repair

3

2. Dark layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Ti, traces of K and Fe, organic medium

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly K, Fe, Si and Al, traces of Na, Pb and Cl, organic medium

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

7

Cross-section

Area of repair

2

1. Yellowish and undefined layer with large orange and black particles

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, organic medium

Mostly Fe and Ba, traces of Mg, K and Cl, organic medium

0. Plaster bulk

8

Cross-section

Fluorescent varnish

4

3. Varnish

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Cl, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of K, Fe and Na, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch

2. Dark layer

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

9

Cross-section

 

3

2. Dark layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, Al, Sr and Fe, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si, Al, Mg, Sr and Fe, traces of K and Ti, diterpenic resin, possibly additional triterpenic resin or birch

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

10

Cross-section

 

3

2. Dark layer

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, organic medium

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of K and Cl, organic medium

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

11

Cross-section

 

4

3. Varnish

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, organic medium

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of Fe and Mg, organic medium

2. Dark layer

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

12

Cross-section

Fluorescent varnish

4

3. Varnish

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of P, Cl and Fe, organic medium

2. Dark layer

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk

13

Cross-section

Fluorescent varnish

4

3. Varnish

Calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay minerals, Mg, diterpenic resin

Intermediate of plaster and dark layer

Mostly Si and Al, traces of Fe, Mg, Cl, Ti and Na, diterpenic resin

2. Dark layer

1. Yellowish and undefined layer

0. Plaster bulk