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Table 2 Results of SEM–EDS and μ-RS analyses

From: Polychrome arhat figures dated from the Song Dynasty (960–1279 CE) at the Lingyan Temple, Changqing, Shandong, China

Samples
No
Layers
No
Al
(Cr)
Si K
(Na)
Ca
(Mg)
Fe
(Ti)
Pb
(Au)
As
(Ag)
S
(Cl)
Hg
(Cu)
μ-RS results
D1-1 L1 Reddish- brown 3.6 12.1 1.5 4.6 (0.9) 17.5 59.8 Hematite, red lead
L2 Priming layer 23.6 37.3 3.7 8.7 4.4 20.0 2.3
L3 Red 0.7 0.9 14.9 83.5 Cinnabar
L4 Priming layer 18.8 35.5 3.9 17.6 7.0 17.2
L5 Orange 3.8 2.6 2.5 81.6 9.5 Red lead
L6 Priming layer 33.0 42.6 3.3 3.1 14.2 3.7
L7 Yellow 4.1 5.0 22.8 44.6 23.4 Orpiment
L8 Priming layer 29.8 35.2 6.8 3.8 16.1 8.3
L9 Orange 3.6 3.8 2.4 90.3 Red lead
L10 Priming layer 18.5 32.6 3.3 18.3 5.8 21.3
L11 Red 15.4 11.5 73.1 Cinnabar
L12 Priming layer 24.2 49.5 4.0 1.8 2.5 17.9
L13 White 3.7 12.9 (3.5) 79.9 Lead white, chalk
D1–2 L1 Reddish– brown 8.4 1.6 26.4 63.6 Hematite, red lead
L2 Priming layer 39.1 49.5 1.8 2.9 6.7
D1-3 L1 Pink 25.3 45.1 4.3 8.1 (2.4) 13.5 (1.3) Hematite, Anatase titanium white
D1–4 L1 Orange 2.9 3.2 1.0 1.2 91.7 Red lead
L2 Priming layer 22.9 25.2 2.2 2.8 46.9 Lead white,
L3 White 1.4 1.8 11.9 84.9 Lead white, chalk
L4 Priming layer 1.5 3.3 56.5 38.7 Chalk, lead white,
D1–5 L1 Blue 13.8 23.6 (1.5) 43.8 4.0 10.5    (2.7) Azurite, chalk
L2 Priming layer 37.3 52.5 5.4 4.8
L3 White 0.6 0.7 98.7 Lead white
L4 Priming layer 27.1 53.3 7.4 3.0 2.7 6.5
L5 Red 6.5 6.8 3.5 9.8 (3.9) 33.8 9.1 26.7 Cinnabar, red lead
L6 Priming layer 31.1 51.6 8.6 4.5 4.2  
L7 Green 4.1 22.4 29.1 (12.1) (32.4)  
L8 Priming layer 18.5 23.6 2.8 52.0 3.1   
D1-6 L1 Red - - 1.7 21.3 77.0 Cinnabar
L2 Priming layer 30.7 50.3 8.4 10.6  
L3 White 4.6 29.2 (13.6) 52.6 Chalk, magnesite,
lead white
L4 Priming layer 38.0 51.9 6.6 3.6  
L5 White 0.8 1.3 - 97.9 - Lead white
L6 Priming layer 27.7 59.2 8.3 1.8 3.0 - -  
L7 White 1.4 0.9 1.0 - 96.7 - Lead white
L8 Priming layer 37.9 50.5 5.9 5.7 - -  
D1-7 L1 Gold (89.1) (10.9)   
L3 Golden yellow 23.6 43.1 5.7 4.0 23.6 Pyrophyllite
L4 Gold (93.1) (6.9)   
L6 Golden yellow 27.1 37.1 5.5 3.2 25.3     (1.8)  
L7 Silver (78.6) (21.4)   
L9 Silver (73.6) (23.0) (3.4)  
L11 Gold (89.1) (7.3)   (3.6)  
D1-8 L1 Pink 8.5 24.0 37.1 (8.4) 19.0 - - 3.0 Hematite, chalk
L2 Priming layer 12.8 42.0 5.5 26.7 13.0 - - -  
L3 Priming layer 16.5 49.1 7.9 10.3 16.2 - - -  
D1-9 L1 Gold (97.4) (2.6)   
L3 Golden yellow 18.9 45.6 4.2 3.6 19.5 (8.2)   
L4 Gold (96.7) (3.3)   
L6 Golden yellow 28.8 38.2 5.8 5.2 22.0  
L7 Gold (96.6) 5.4   
L13 Gold (90.2) 9.8   
D1–10 L1 Blue 19.9 34.1 2.8 (19.4) 1.1 21.1
(1.6)
Ultramarine
D1–11 L1 Black           Lamp black
L2 Priming layer 27.7 32.8 9.2 (0.5) 29.8  
L3 Orange 1.9 1.5 1.4 88.4 (6.8) Red lead
L4 Priming layer 3.3 3.6 83.4 (9.7) Lead white
L5 Priming layer 28.1 48.3 3.9 (0.7) 19.1  
D1–12 L1 Reddish– brown 0.5 0.4 95.4 (3.7) Red lead
L2 Black           Lamp black
L3 Priming layer 10.9 23.0 16.2
(8.5)
41.4  
D1–13 L1 Red 1.8 2.9 9.6 19.8 65.9 Cinnabar
L2 Orange 0.7 0.8 98.5    Red lead
L3 Red 2.9 4.0 3.6 8.2 81.3 Cinnabar
L4 White 25.6 33.7 3.2 3.0 34.5 Lead white
L5 Priming layer 18.1 35.4 5.0 (2.1) 5.8 33.6  
L6 Priming layer 18.9 28.0 3.0 8.9 39.2  
D1–14 L1 Yellow (0.5) 1.4 30.3 60.4 7.4 Chrome yellow, chalk
L2 Green 1.6 5.3 3.9 48.3 26.0 (3.0) (11.9) Emerald green
L3 Orange 0.7 0.9 98.4 Red lead
L4 Green 2.2 2.3   2.6   74.8 9.9 (2.1) (6.1) Emerald green
D1–15 L1 Green 6.1 4.2 58.9 (30.8) Emerald green
L2 Black           Lamp black
L3 Red 5.0 4.2 4.2 36.2 50.4 Cinnabar
L4 Priming layer 10.7 21.2 59.7 8.4  
L5 Red 1.0 1.4 3.1 48.9 7.1 12.7 25.8 Cinnabar
D1–16 L1 Rose red           Rhodamine B
L2 White 2.3 4.7 20.6 (54.6) 17.8 Anatase titanium white
L4 Orange 6.1 12.6 11.9
(6.9)
59.7 2.8 Hematite
D1–17 L1 White 8.0 16.4 1.9 70.8
(2.9)
Chalk
D1–18 L1 Blue–green    (3.6) 4.8    53.3 (0.4) (37.9) Lavendulan
  L2 Black           Lamp black
D1–19 L1 Black           Lamp black