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Table 1 Sample description. Color of the sampling area, estimated thickness of each layer (Layer1: ground; Layer2: underpainting; Layer3: pictorial layer); chemical elements revealed by the EDX microanalysis differentiating between major, minor and trace components, and the pigments suggested by the structural, morphological, molecular and elemental information

From: A combination of invasive and non-invasive techniques for the study of the palette and painting structure of a copy of Raphael's Transfiguration of Christ

Sample/color Layers (thickness) SEM–EDX microanalysis (elements) Pigments and fillers suggested by OM, SEM–EDX, µRS, µATR-FTIR and pXRD
Major components Minor and trace (tr) components
Ground layer/red-brown 1: 30–1650 μm Fe, C, Ca Si,Pb,P(tr),K(tr),Mn(tr),S(tr),Al(tr),Ba(tr),Ti(tr),Co(tr) Iron oxides (hematite, goethite), carbon black, gypsum, white lead (cerussite and hidrocerussite), bone black and traces of quartz, calcite, baryte, gypsum, dolomite, siderite, silicate minerals as feldspar (orthoclase, microcline) and lepidocrocite
RF-1/brown area soil 3: pictorial layer
(10–30 μm)
3: C, Pb 3: Ca,Mg,S(tr),Al(tr), Si(tr),P(tr),K(tr),Fe(tr),Na(tr)Ba(tr) 3: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite, iron oxides, bone black, carbon black, calcite
RF-2/blue robe 3: pictorial layer
(30–60 μm)
2: underpainting
(10–70 μm)
3: Al, Si, Na, K
2: C, Pb,
3: Fe,Pb,S,Co,Ca(tr), Ba(tr)
2: Si,Fe,Al(tr),K(tr), Ca(tr)
3: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite, lapis lazuli, smalt
2: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite), carbon black
RF-3/purple tunic 3: pictorial layer
(10–40 μm)
2: underpainting
(20–70 μm)
3: C, Pb, Al,
2: C, Pb,
3: Fe,Ca,Si(tr),S(tr),K(tr), Ba(tr),Mn(tr)
2: Fe,Ca(tr),Si(tr),Al(tr)
3: red lake, white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite)
2: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite), carbon black
RF-4/yellow robe 3: pictorial layer
(10–50 μm)
2: underpainting
(10–40 μm)
3: C,Pb,
2: C, Pb,
3: Ca,Fe,Si(tr),Al(tr)
2: Fe(tr)
3: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite), iron oxides (goethite), lead tin yellow
2: white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite), carbon black
RF-5/blue sky 3: pictorial layer
(10–60 μm)
3: blue particle: Si, Al,
3: black area: C, Pb
3: blue particle: Co,Pb, Mg, Fe(tr),K(tr),Na(tr), S(tr),Zn(tr),Ca(tr)
3: black area: Ca,Si,P,Mg,Al(tr),
Fe(tr),K(tr)
3: blue particle:
lapis lazuli, smalt
3: black area:
carbon black, bone black,
white lead (cerussite and hydrocerussite)