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Table 3 Overview of the materials identified through minimally invasive analyses of the six investigated paintings

From: A multi-analytical study of the palette of impressionist and post-impressionist Puerto Rican artists

Painting Sample Analytical technique and associated element (SEM-EDX) and Raman shifts (cm−1) Figure Identified materials in ground and colored layers
Trapiche CS1 SEM-EDX Co, Al, Zn, Pb Figure 5 Ground: N/A
Colored layer: cobalt blue, cobalt green and lead white
Raman 328, 434, 545, 567, 1050, 1090–1142 Figure 6a
202, 513 Figure 6b
CAM-1329 SCR1 SEM-EDX Pb, Ba N/A Ground: N/A
Colored layer: lead white, vermilion, and Ba-containing yellow, likely organic, identified as PY1 (Hansa Yellow G—C.I. 11680)
Raman 1050 Additional file 1: Fig. S14j
250, 281, 340 Additional file 1: Fig. S14k
SCR2 HPLC-DAD-MS/MS   Figure 8
CAM-1328 CS2 SEM-EDX Pb, Cr, Cu, As, Ca, Al, Mg Figure 7 Ground: lead white
Colored layer: ultramarine blue, viridian, Emerald green, and vermilion
Raman 1050 Figure 6c
260, 345, 432, 487, 541, 583, 837 Figure 6d
106, 153, 175, 217, 242, 292, 325, 371, 429, 541 Figure 6e
256, 546, 581, 804, 1092 Figure 6f
252, 284, 342 Figure 6g
SCR3 HPLC-DAD-MS/MS   Figure 9 PY3 (Hansa Yellow 10G—C.I. 11710)
2004–005 CS3 SEM-EDX Ba, Ca, Pb, Fe Additional file 1: Fig. S11 Ground: likely lead white, likely calcium carbonate, and barium sulfate
Pigmented layer 1 (top): ba-rich light yellow
Pigmented layer 1 (bottom): mars red
Raman 224, 290, 410, 496, 610 Additional file 1: Fig. S14a
453, 461, 986 Additional file 1: Fig. S14b
2004–007 CS4 SEM-EDX, Ground: Zn, Ba, S, Ca, Pb, Si
Colored layer: Pb, Hg, S
Additional file 1: Fig. S12 Ground: lead white, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, quartz, and lithopone
Colored layer: lead white, Prussian blue, and vermilion
Raman 453, 986 Additional file 1: Fig. S14c
250, 281, 340 Additional file 1: Fig. S14d
154, 281, 1085 Additional file 1: Fig. S14e
127, 202, 463 Additional file 1: Fig. S14f
1006 Additional file 1: Fig. S14g
2003–05–02 CS5 SEM-EDX Pb, Zn, Fe, Al Additional file 1: Fig. S13 Ground: lead white and zinc white, with inclusion of yellow ochre/goethite
Colored layer: N/A
Raman 1050 Additional file 1: Fig. S14h
250, 300, 387 Additional file 1: Fig. S14i