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Table 1 Elemental composition of the artefacts from the Almohad neighbourhood of Mārtulah (wt.%); n.d.: not detected

From: Islamic copper-based metal artefacts from the Garb al-Andalus. A multidisciplinary approach on the Alcáçova of Mārtulah (Mértola, South of Portugal)

ID Functionality Cu Zn Sn Pb Fe As Ag Ni Sb
Brass
AA-01-02 Casket ornament 91.90 4.95 1.4 0.75 0.3 0.46 0.07 0.02 0.15
AA-01-04 Casket ornament 90.30 6.6 1.6 0.93 0.07 0.2 0.09 0.01 0.2
AA-01-06 Casket ornament 83.75 10.7 2.3 1.47 0.5 0.25 0.85 0.03 0.15
AA-01-08 Casket ornament 84.40 11.0 3.0 1.05 0.15 0.17 0.1 0.03 0.1
AA-01-13 Casket ornament 86.75 12.4 0.48 0.08 0.19 0.1 n.d n.d n.d
AA-01-14 Casket ornament 89.35 8.35 0.9 0.4 0.35 0.4 0.09 0.01 0.15
AA-01-16 Casket ornament 91.00 7.2 0.33 0.17 0.3 0.9 0.06 0.01 0.03
AA-01-17 Casket ornament 89.30 8.75 1.2 0.22 0.02 0.42 0.09 n.d n.d
AA-01-18 Casket ornament 88.60 7.4 2.1 1.1 0.05 0.32 0.08 0.15 0.2
AA-01-20 Casket ornament 88.70 8.45 0.5 0.9 0.3 1.15 n.d n.d n.d
AA-02-25 Casket ornament 86.45 10.4 0.6 0.95 0.32 0.8 0.48 n.d n.d
AA-02-26 Casket ornament 86.91 10.34 0.91 1.15 0.22 0.15 0.32 n.d n.d
AA-02-27 Casket ornament 88.12 7.9 1.4 1.55 0.25 0.23 0.26 0.02 0.27
AA-02-28 Casket ornament 93.05 4.62 0.7 0.75 0.29 0.15 0.29 n.d 0.15
AA-02-29 Casket ornament 77.31 22.37 n.d 0.1 0.02 0.13 n.d 0.07 n.d
AA-02-30 Casket ornament 83.92 14.52 n.d 1.1 0.26 0.2 n.d n.d n.d
AA-02-32 Casket ornament 83.56 14.74 1.1 0.15 0.23 0.2 n.d 0.02 n.d
AA-02-33 Casket ornament 78.31 20.3 1.1 0.05 0.03 0.12 0.06 0.03 n.d
AA-02-36 Casket ornament 86.15 12.07 1.25 0.3 0.1 0.13 n.d n.d n.d
AA-02-37 Casket ornament 86.57 10.2 1.7 1.0 0.1 0.19 0.07 0.02 0.15
AA-02-46 Casket ornament 90.46 6.52 1.37 0.95 0.2 0.24 0.07 0.02 0.17
AA-02-54 Casket ornament 88.80 9.95 n.d 0.15 0.08 0.7 0.11 0.17 0.04
AA-03-62 Casket ornament 81.93 14.11 1.4 1.35 0.11 0.9 0.2 n.d n.d
AA-03-79 Casket ornament 84.52 10.39 3.3 1.4 0.17 0.2 0 n.d 0.02 n.d
AN-01-36 Finger ring 87.51 10.5 0.4 0.55 0.27 0.7 0.07 n.d n.d
BC-01-06 Earring 91.04 7.07 0.7 0.4 0.05 0.66 0.08 n.d n.d
BC-01-07 Earring 93.41 4.75 0.65 0.6 0.06 0.15 0.14 0.01 0.23
BC-01-09 Earring 91.40 5.6 1.95 0.57 0.06 0.15 0.1 n.d 0.17
BC-01-11 Earring 89.79 7.98 1.35 0.21 0.03 0.55 0.09 n.d n.d
BC-01-16 Earring 88.53 9.41 1.05 0.45 0.1 0.31 0.15 n.d n.d
BC-01-17 Earring 82.88 14.12 1.35 0.65 0.2 0.8 n.d n.d n.d
BC-01-18 Earring 85.47 13.08 0.85 0.15 0.07 0.25 0.13 n.d n.d
BC-01-19 Earring 88.67 9.23 0.65 0.22 0.06 1.1 0.07 n.d n.d
BC-01-21 Earring 82.98 14.72 1.2 0.25 0.05 0.8 n.d n.d n.d
BC-01-26 Earring 86.96 11.55 0.75 0.1 0.06 0.5 0.08 n.d n.d
BC-01-30 Earring 92.38 4.98 1.16 0.95 0.12 0.4 n.d 0.01 n.d
BC-01-42 Earring 88.27 8.71 0.9 0.48 0.14 1.5 n.d n.d n.d
BC-01-46 Earring 91.79 5.76 0.88 0.62 0.1 0.85 n.d n.d n.d
BC-01-55 Earring 88.69 7.73 1.85 0.85 0.2 0.4 n.d 0.02 0.26
BC-01-61 Earring 90.92 5.75 1.35 1.0 0.26 0.35 0.11 0.02 0.24
BC-01-62 Earring 87.33 10.32 1.15 0.21 0.03 0.9 0.06 n.d n.d
BC-01-66 Earring 90.56 5.61 1.8 0.95 0.25 0.55 0.1 n.d 0.18
BC-01-72 Earring 86.07 11.43 1.3 0.5 0.02 0.6 0.07 0.01 n.d
BC-01-76 Earring 91.58 6.44 0.75 0.6 0.04 0.25 0.15 0.01 0.18
BC-01-89 Earring 84.81 12.14 1.63 0.68 0.06 0.35 0.09 0.01 0.23
BC-03-100 Earring 86.64 8.63 1.3 2.3 0.55 0.3 0.09 0.01 0.18
BC-03-101 Earring 83.48 14.74 1.55 0.05 0.03 0.15 n.d n.d n.d
BC-03-105 Earring 88.35 9 1.25 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.09 0.01 0.2
BC-03-106 Earring 87.23 9.42 1.7 1.05 0.05 0.3 0.07 0.01 0.17
BC-03-108 Earring 83.68 14.32 0.87 0.38 0.1 0.65 n.d n.d n.d
BC-03-109 Earring 88.55 8.19 1.15 1.4 0.25 0.3 0.16 n.d n.d
BC-03-115 Earring 90.60 7.6 0.48 0.6 0.13 0.33 0.08 0.01 0.17
BC-03-118 Earring 83.57 10.94 2.34 2.25 0.32 0.5 n.d 0.08 n.d
BC-03-97 Earring 91.97 5.1 1.3 0.65 0.19 0.7 0.09 n.d n.d
BC-03-98 Earring 83.50 15.1 1.17 0.05 0.04 0.08 n.d 0.06 n.d
AR-01-35 Ring 85.22 12.07 1.38 0.8 0.26 0.22 n.d 0.05 n.d
DV-02-44 Undetermined 93.28 4.19 0.9 0.25 0.21 0.74 0.43 n.d n.d
DV-02-75 Undetermined 89.8 7.65 0.95 0.85 0.09 0.47 0.06 0.01 0.12
DV-02-80 Undetermined 89.87 6.45 1.3 1.93 0.12 0.22 n.d 0.01 0.1
DV-03-113 Undetermined 93.98 2.27 0.8 1.35 0.18 0.6 0.16 0.07 0.59
DV-03-86 Undetermined 88.30 8.9 1.55 0.48 0.03 0.48 0.08 0.02 0.16
DV-03-89 Undetermined 89.46 8.1 0.95 0.47 0.35 0.45 0.07 0.02 0.13
EC-01-01 Oil Lamp stick 85.62 8.73 2.12 2.75 0.25 0.12 0.14 n.d 0.27
EC-01-05 Oil lamp stick 87.86 11.65 n.d 0.3 0.07 0.12 n.d n.d n.d
EC-01-06 Oil lamp stick 87.76 8.35 2.35 0.9 0.07 0.32 0.11 0.01 0.13
EC-01-07 Oil lamp stick 85.70 14.05 n.d 0.1 0.07 0.03 0.05 n.d n.d
EC-01-08 Oil lamp stick 82.46 12.62 2.75 1.25 0.05 0.12 0.4 n.d 0.35
EC-01-09 Oil lamp stick 89.74 6.94 1.65 1.15 0.25 0.21 0.06 n.d n.d
EC-01-12 Oil lamp stick 85.54 12.43 0.1 1.07 0.2 0.47 0.14 0.05 n.d
EC-01-15 Oil lamp stick 88.13 10.67 n.d 0.55 0.03 0.1 0.21 0.31 n.d
EC-01-16 Oil lamp stick 88.89 8.7 0.6 0.38 0.35 0.78 0.14 0.01 0.15
ES-01-01 Spatula 85.69 13.7 0.01 0.5 0.03 0.07 n.d n.d n.d
ES-01-06 Spatula 92.77 5.18 0.3 0.54 0.14 0.9 n.d 0.02 0.15
ES-01-08 Spatula 91.43 4.77 1.38 0.95 0.87 0.31 0.26 0.03 n.d
ES-01-11 Spatula 94.88 2.52 0.49 0.43 0.16 1.3 n.d 0.01 0.21
ES-01-12 Spatula 87.94 7.33 2.02 1.55 0.21 0.58 n.d 0.03 0.34
ES-01-20 Spatula 89.03 8.07 0.85 0.77 0.2 0.71 0.14 0.05 0.18
ES-01-22 Spatula 88.14 7.68 1.55 1.7 0.15 0.44 0.12 n.d 0.22
ES-02-23 Spatula 88.66 9.67 0.5 0.51 0.04 0.62 n.d n.d n.d
ES-02-26 Spatula 86.74 9.39 2.3 0.81 0.04 0.32 0.13 n.d 0.27
ES-02-27 Spatula 89.26 8.41 0.74 0.28 0.1 1.2 n.d 0.01 n.d
ES-02-29 Spatula 85.99 10.63 1.4 1.1 0.15 0.4 n.d 0.03 0.3
ES-02-30 Spatula 88.77 7.63 0.83 1.8 0.12 0.4 0.2 0.03 0.22
ES-02-36 Spatula 88.22 8.05 2.5 0.58 0.25 0.26 0.14 n.d n.d
ES-02-54 Spatula 93.94 4.49 0.24 0.61 0.21 0.3 0.2 0.01 n.d
PF-01-02 Spindle 88.39 7.61 1.41 0.9 0.06 1.35 0.27 0.01 n.d
PF-01-06 Spindle 90.36 7.9 0.38 0.62 0.2 0.14 0.15 0.04 0.21
PF-01-100 Spindle 93.10 3.67 1.55 0.52 0.35 0.23 0.27 0.01 0.3
PF-01-104 Spindle 89.45 8.2 0.61 0.66 0.4 0.4 0.11 0.01 0.16
PF-01-106 Spindle 84.99 12.06 0.85 0.88 0.16 1.05 n.d 0.01 n.d
PF-01-107 Spindle 85.23 14.08 0.03 0.32 0.13 0.14 0.07 n.d n.d
PF-01-11 Spindle 86.88 11.59 0.43 0.25 0.12 0.72 n.d 0.01 n.d
PF-01-16 Spindle 88.66 9.23 1.03 0.13 0.15 0.8 n.d n.d n.d
PF-01-20 Spindle 85.81 11.58 1.42 0.32 0.07 0.8 n.d n.d n.d
PF-01-27 Spindle 88.54 9.28 0.4 0.65 0.13 0.86 0.14 n.d n.d
PF-01-30 Spindle 77.77 17.61 3.68 0.74 0.09 0.11 n.d n.d n.d
PF-01-31 Spindle 74.97 20.58 1.1 2.2 0.14 0.52 0.18 0.03 0.28
PF-01-32 Spindle 80.91 15.48 1.9 0.4 0.16 1.15 n.d n.d n.d
PF-01-33 Spindle 91.05 6.67 0.6 0.2 0.05 1.35 0.08 n.d n.d
PF-01-36 Spindle 81.16 15.78 1.66 0.2 0.23 0.83 0.13 0.01 n.d
PF-01-37 Spindle 83.62 13.83 1.0 0.4 0.25 0.79 0.11 n.d n.d
PF-01-38 Spindle 80.97 15.44 0.14 2.9 0.11 0.2 0.24 n.d n.d
PF-01-47 Spindle 93.09 4.9 0.7 0.79 0.28 0.11 0.13 n.d n.d
PF-01-54 Spindle 83.75 14.87 0.29 0.17 0.07 0.78 n.d n.d 0.07
PF-01-65 Spindle 87.95 9.26 1.2 0.32 0.04 1.15 0.07 0.01 n.d
PF-01-77 Spindle 84.43 11.9 1.45 1.7 0.18 0.3 n.d 0.04 n.d
PF-01-81 Spindle 92.73 4.39 1.15 0.85 0.19 0.55 0.14 n.d n.d
PF-01-85 Spindle 89.42 6.98 0.83 0.88 0.58 1.2 0.1 0.01 n.d
PF-02-114 Spindle 94.92 2.68 0.56 1.5 0.09 0.25 n.d n.d n.d
PF-02-122 Spindle 79.28 19.83 0.11 0.42 0.08 0.28 n.d n.d n.d
PF-02-128 Spindle 84.22 10.78 2.97 1.15 0.48 0.34 n.d 0.06 n.d
PF-02-129 Spindle 88.29 8.7 1.65 0.84 0.24 0.16 0.12 n.d n.d
PF-02-131 Spindle 88.57 8.95 1.7 0.41 0.07 0.19 0.08 0.03 n.d
PF-02-156 Spindle 84.17 13.09 1.1 0.37 0.15 0.88 0.24 n.d n.d
PF-02-161 Spindle 84.89 11.74 2.19 0.75 0.15 0.26 n.d 0.02 n.d
PF-02-179 Spindle 91.47 6.86 0.88 0.43 0.03 0.14 n.d 0.19 n.d
PF-02-182 Spindle 86.72 9.23 1.81 1.72 0.2 0.26 n.d 0.06 n.d
PF-02-183 Spindle 88.63 9.67 0.63 0.22 0.1 0.67 0.08 n.d n.d
PF-02-185 Spindle 84.86 13.43 1.26 0.15 0.06 0.13 0.05 0.06 n.d
PF-02-223 Spindle 90.63 5.92 1.74 0.95 0.05 0.38 0.11 0.02 0.2
PF-02-231 Spindle 87.98 8.25 2.06 1.03 0.1 0.14 n.d 0.44 n.d
PF-02-232 Spindle 82.17 14.86 1.74 0.73 0.2 0.25 n.d 0.05 n.d
Leaded brass
BC-01-81 Earring 85.07 9.78 0.12 3.7 0.13 1.05 0.15 n.d n.d
AA-02-56 Casket ornament 71.20 14.75 1.75 10.9 0.32 0.42 0.2 0.02 0.44
PF-02-130 Spindle 85.54 5.83 1.93 5.74 0.4 0.36 0.2 n.d n.d
EC-01-14 Oil lamp stick 75.84 19.69 0.07 4.19 0.07 0.12 n.d 0.02 n.d
BC-03-120 Earring 90.50 4.1 0.4 3.75 0.2 0.7 0.35 n.d n.d
PF-01-08 Spindle 69.34 21.27 2.33 5.9 0.17 0.77 0.15 0.07 n.d
Bronze
BC-01-70 Earring 94.99 0.08 4.25 0.4 0.06 0.2 n.d 0.02 n.d
DV-02-47 Undetermined 91.32 0.15 5.41 1.16 0.25 0.142 1.56 0.01 n.d
DV-02-64 Undetermined 90.54 0.06 9.09 n.d 0.11 0.14 0.06 n.d n.d
PF-01-01 Spindle 91.34 1.54 4.63 1.1 0.2 0.61 0.17 n.d 0.41
Leaded bronze
AR-01-53 Ring 75.13 2.12 9.75 11.05 0.55 0.8 n.d 0.05 0.55
Copper
AA-02-43 Casket ornament 99.52 0.08 n.d 0.21 0.01 0.15 n.d 0.03 n.d
AA-03-59 Casket ornament 96.45 1.9 0.26 0.65 0.07 0.16 0.15 0.06 0.3
AA-03-66 Casket ornament 97.05 0.13 1.3 0.15 0.29 0.65 0.05 0.08 0.3
BC-03-117 Earring 96.13 1.58 0.87 0.45 0.23 0.63 n.d 0.11 n.d
FIV-01-12 Buckle 98.95 0.09 n.d 0.64 0.05 0.04 0.09 0.01 0.13
AR-01-42 Ring 96.63 0.05 0.63 2.3 0.03 0.25 0.11 n.d n.d
DV-01-04 Undetermined 98.00 0.09 0.1 0.63 0.13 0.09 0.62 0.04 0.3
DV-01-05 Undetermined 98.92 0.1 n.d 0.03 0.25 0.13 0.57 n.d n.d
DV-01-19 Undetermined 96.48 0.09 0.49 2.3 0.2 0.18 0.09 0.09 0.08
DV-01-36 Undetermined 98.55 0.09 n.d 0.33 0.1 0.06 0.66 0.02 0.19
DV-02-53 Undetermined 97.70 0.1 0.95 0.8 0.02 0.14 0.11 0.02 0.16
DV-02-54 Undetermined 96.44 1.77 0.85 0.35 0.17 0.24 n.d n.d 0.18
DV-02-79 Undetermined 98.07 0.07 0.26 0.8 0.04 0.31 0.25 0.02 0.18
PF-01-78 Spindle 91.94 1.94 2.93 0.79 0.2 0.26 1.94 n.d n.d
PR-02-13 Nail 98.55 0.25 0.07 0.66 0.23 0.2 n.d 0.04 n.d
Leaded copper
PR-02-06 Nail 93.62 0.11 0.15 4.85 0.24 0.46 0.16 0.03 0.38
Red brass
PF-01-44 Spindle 92.88 2.24 1.14 2.85 0.04 0.25 0.21 n.d 0.39
AA-01-21 Casket ornament 88.10 3.7 3.05 4.0 0.5 0.37 0.09 0.02 0.17
AA-02-39 Casket ornament 84.68 7.33 5.3 2.15 0.24 0.07 0.1 0.01 0.12
AA-02-49 Casket ornament 87.92 7.76 3.4 0.34 0.5 0.08 n.d n.d n.d
AN-01-35 Finger ring 88.52 7.48 2.64 0.5 0.05 0.55 0.08 0.01 0.17
BC-01-05 Earring 94.32 2.47 1.16 1.4 0.1 0.55 n.d n.d n.d
BC-01-12 Earring 89.71 5.45 3.65 0.6 0.02 0.27 0.09 n.d 0.21
BC-01-82 Earring 90.13 4.81 2.41 1.25 0.5 0.9 n.d n.d n.d
BC-03-116 Earring 86.52 6.27 4.85 1.15 0.2 1.0 n.d 0.01 n.d
PF-01-03 Spindle 89.18 6.13 2.82 0.78 0.15 0.59 0.1 n.d 0.25
PF-01-04 Spindle 90.93 5.08 2.03 0.49 0.15 0.5 0.6 0.01 0.21
PF-01-05 Spindle 91.77 4.23 2.25 0.86 0.14 0.37 0.37 0.01 n.d
PF-01-55 Spindle 87.74 7.03 3.35 1.1 0.29 0.24 0.25 n.d n.d
PF-01-99 Spindle 90.06 4.15 3.8 1.25 0.15 0.18 0.12 0.02 0.27
PF-02-178 Spindle 87.33 8.06 2.9 1.18 0.15 0.3 n.d 0.08 n.d
PF-02-230 Spindle 91.89 3.33 1.62 2.1 0.3 0.51 0.24 0.01 n.d
Leaded red brass
BC-01-86 Earring 68.74 18.08 6.25 6.3 0.09 0.3 0.21 0.03 n.d
ES-01-10 Spatula 89.85 2.1 1.25 6.2 0.08 0.52 n.d n.d n.d
DV-01-31 Undetermined 82.25 9.3 4.3 3.6 0.15 0.1 0.09 0.01 0.2
PF-01-14 Spindle 82.98 5.71 4.0 6.6 0.51 0.2 n.d n.d n.d
DV-02-63 Undetermined 82.71 4.96 2.12 7.85 0.4 0.64 0.2 0.1 1.02
DV-03-95 Undetermined 86.88 3.06 1.71 6.5 0.58 0.45 0.13 0.15 0.54