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Table 1 List of natural and synthetic dyestuffs identified in the Japanese woodblock prints considered in this study

From: A timeline for the introduction of synthetic dyestuffs in Japan during the late Edo and Meiji periods

Dye Molecule Color Index # Chemical class Origin Introductiond
Rosaniline Basic red 14 Triarylmethane Synthetic 1856–1858
Pararosaniline Basic red 9 Triarylmethane Synthetic 1869
Methyl violet Basic violet 1 Triarylmethane Synthetic Synthetized: 1861 As artists’ material: 1866
Crystal violet Basic violet 3 Triarylmethane Synthetic 1883
Safflower red Carthamine Natural red 26 Chalcone Natural (vegetal) Antiquity
Carmine Carminic acid Natural red 4 Anthraquinone Natural (animal) Americas: antiquity Europe: 1518
Eosin Y Sodium salt: acid red 87; free acid: solvent red 43 Xanthene Synthetic 1871
Ponceau 2Ra Acid red 26 Naphthol Synthetic 1878
Brilliant scarletb Acid red 18 Naphthol Synthetic 1878
Cotton scarletc Acid red 73 Naphthol Synthetic 1882
  1. a Listed in the Colour Index also as scarlet 2R, rainbow scarlet, new Ponceau 4R, acid scarlet, naphtharene scarlet 2R, amacid scarlet 2R lake scarlet 2R [11]
  2. b Listed in the Color Index also as scarlet, rainbow scarlet, new coccine, brilliant ponceau, wool scarlet, pontacyl scarlet, crocein scarlet [11]
  3. c Listed in the Color Index also as brilliant croceine, croceine scarlet, paper scarlet, blackley scarlet, carmoisine, croceine, paper red, cocceine, ponceau [11]
  4. dThe term introduction refers to the introduction in the Western world, unless otherwise specified