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Table 1 Influence of principals ENPs on animals and plants at both the organismal and biochemical levels

From: Antimicrobial engineered nanoparticles in the built cultural heritage context and their ecotoxicological impact on animals and plants: a brief review

Type of NPs Biological group Organisms Toxic activity References
TiO2 Insect Drosophila melanogaster Progeny loss and decline in female fecundity Philbrook et al. [59]
Plants Lemna paucicostata (Aquatic plant, duckweed) Toxic effect on growth at concentration range of > 250 ppm Kim et al. [60]
Lycopersicon esculentum Reduced chlorophyll content and fruit productivity Song et al. [61]
Spinacia oleracea Increase of N cycle-related enzymes Zheng et al. [62]
Ag Insect Drosophila melanogaster Decrease in developmental success. Philbrook et al. [59]
Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi Larvicidal activity against mosquito borne diseases Balakrishnan et al. [63]
Aedes albopictus, Toxorhynchites splendens, and Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Highly effective against larval instars (I–IV) and pupae. Reduced toxicity against the mosquito natural enemies M. thermocyclopoides and T. splendens Kumar et al. [64]
Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Activity against mosquito larvae in a dose-dependent manner Ramkumar et al. [65]
Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi High toxicity against the treated larvae at very low concentrations Velu et al. [66]
Annelids Eisenia andrei Bioaccumulation of silver nanoparticles in earthworms Velicogna et al. [67]
Eisenia fetida Toxicity increase with time Diez-Ortiz et al. [68]
Plants Allium cepa Abnormalities in post meiotic products in root tip and flower buds. Both mitotic and meiotic indexes decrease with increasing concentrations of bio-AgNPs in the treated cells Saha and Gupta [69]
Cucumis sativus Growth indices (except pH of fruit), and concentration of silver heavy metal increased significantly Shams et al. [70]
Aquatic plant duckweed Lemna paucicostata Ag-NP (50 nm at > 1 ppm) inhibits growth of Lemna Kim et al. [60]
Arabidopsis thaliana Up-regulation of 286 genes and down-regulation of 81 genes after treatment Kaveh et al. [71]
Oryza sativa (Asian rice) Cytotoxic. Increased protein precursors for oxidative stress tolerance, calcium regulation and signalling, cell wall/DNA/RNA/protein direct damage, cell division, and apoptosis after exposure for 21 days Mirzajani et al. [72]
Allium cepa Oxidative stress and toxicity in roots only when applied in higher concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 µM) Cvjetko et al. [73]
CuO Insect Drosophila melanogaster DNA damage in larval hemocytes and mutant spots on wings Carmona et al. [38]
Enchytraeus crypticus Toxic for reproductive output of the worms Gomes et al. [74]
Plants Vigna radiata Reduced shoot and root length and biomass Gopalakrishnan Nair et al. [75]
Lactuca sativa Reduced the root length Liu et al. [76]
ZnO Insect Helicoverpa armigera Larvicidal and pupicidal strongly reduced longevity and fecundity. Reduced food consumption Murugan et al. [77]
Annelids Eisenia fetida Significant damage to earthworms after exposure Hu et al. [78]
Nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans Smaller particle sizes (< 25 nm) are toxic to nematode Khare et al. [79]
  1. NPs Nanoparticles