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RETRACTED ARTICLE: Impact of rural tourism on residents’ well-being in traditional ancient villages: a case of North Guangxi

This article was retracted on 19 April 2023

This article has been updated


The impact of tourism on traditional Chinese villages is a topical issue; there are enough studies on this subject showing different views of the researchers. The recent trend towards cultural mutation and gradual disappearance of ancient traditions in rural areas is evident in developing countries. The study aims to examine the impact of rural tourism development on Chinese villagers’ welfare. The research data were collected in 2010 and 2020 by a survey method. Since the survey relies heavily on respondents’ perceptions, the survey results are somewhat subjective. However, the pretest–posttest study design partially solved this problem. Statistical processing was performed using the Student’s t-test; all data sets were checked for the normality of the distribution. The study concluded that there has been a significant socio-economic improvement in rural areas in the last decade (expansion of population’s purchasing power, enrichment of the cultural sphere), but despite this there is a tendency of migration from the villages to the cities, which is explained by gaps in regional policy.


It is indisputable that agriculture plays a vital role in the global economy [1]. For instance, the literature identifies a relationship between agricultural development and poverty reduction [2]. As important as it is to keep the agricultural sector functioning, the implications may be serious. Despite a significant environmental footprint [3, 4], developed countries show a strong tendency to neglect their agricultural production and productivity [5]. This problem is directly related to global urbanization and leads to rural decline [6]. As a result, people migrate massively from suburban areas [7] and the historical and cultural heritage in those areas disappears [8]. In addition, the effects of neglected agriculture are exacerbated by both human intervention in the ecosystem and industrialization. Clear examples are declining water quality [9] and heavy metal pollution [10] in agricultural areas.

The unfavorable economic and environmental situation can lead to the deterioration of climatic and social conditions in rural areas. Consequently, this is the cause of agricultural stagnation and migration to cities. Neglect of agriculture can lead to increased poverty in developing countries [11], the fragmentation or even partial loss of agricultural lands [12], and the extinction of plants and animals [13, 14]. Any of these factors can be decisive for changes in agriculture.

The above-mentioned problems, as well as the disappointing forecasts, necessitate a detailed study of the protection and revitalization of rural areas, as well as the reuse of rural settlements. There have been many studies examining the social, economic, and environmental issues of rural development [15,16,17,18,19]. China has its own specifics, but the study results, based on a subjective assessment of changes in well-being, are equally important for other regions of the world [20]. The improvement of rural residents’ well-being can be associated with activities other than rural tourism. For this reason, foreign and domestic policies can be amended to include better financial support for rural areas, increase in jobs, and accessibility in higher education. The policy of forced industrialization and urbanization may have a significant impact on the migration of rural residents, regardless of the positive correlation between the rural tourism development and welfare [21].

Literature review

The world is experiencing an urban growth, as well as a demand for rural tourism and an interest in rural traditions and cultural heritage. This trend was first noticed in the early nineteenth century [22] and could be a result of mental stress and anxious tendencies in urban residents [23].

Modern science [24,25,26] focuses on the protection of rural settlements. For example, scholars are interested in the impact of rural tourism on social development and social capital of South Korean villages [27]. The results of the multi-group analysis showed that the overwhelming majority of residents were positive about rural tourism development. Furthermore, a local survey revealed socio-economic improvements.

Having studied a number of papers, one can see that tourism can carry both positive and negative economic effects for residents of rural areas: positive—additional income, especially for farms, job creation; negative—higher prices [18, 19]. For many world regions, the issue of rural population migration [28] is acute; this issue was considered in a resolution of the European Parliament, which emphasized population reduction and tourism development in rural areas [29]. For example, in the Austrian Alps, one-third of the rural population has been significantly reduced [17]. Rural population migration can be stopped through the right regional policy, including agritourism [30].

As for China, there is a rapid urbanization rate, from 2001 to 2017, the population of cities has almost doubled, from 480 to 813 million [31], which led to a shift in the workforce from rural to urban areas. The studies note that to assess the relationship between rural tourism and local residents' welfare, it is necessary to analyze the specifics of the area under study, to link demographic trends and urbanization trends with tourism interests in rural areas [31].

A comparative study concerning the impact of rural tourism on Romanian regions was conducted [32], and a strong influence of rural tourism on Romanian regions, in particular on the number and cost of guest houses, was found. The rapid development of rural tourism has spawned research on the reuse of villages. According to recent studies, the underlying principles for village revitalization are autonomous community-based management, integrated spatial planning, and reconstruction of architectural structures [33]. A model for revitalizing traditional villages through rural tourism has been built and applied to Chinese villages in the Shaanxi Province [34]. The study revealed that the model's three levels (material, social, and spiritual) are effective pathways for successful village revitalization.

Rural decline induced by the lack of adequate social protection and finance imposes a huge security risk. The problem of rural depopulation in ancient Chinese villages has been addressed in the study of HuanghuaPing village, and parallels with Japan have been drawn [35]. Furthermore, a four-stage solution was offered. The major strategies for protecting and renewing traditional rural buildings, such as modernizing traditional architectural elements, preserving traditional construction techniques, and applying new architectural approaches, were outlined [36].

Many solutions have been proposed to tackle traditional Chinese village revitalization issues. Studies captured a worldwide rise in the population’s welfare due to rural tourism. The implications are the increase in jobs, the emergence of new cultural monuments, cafes, and parks, and the increase in government funding [37, 38]. There are many different models designed to enhance the well-being of rural residents and develop tourism [39, 40]. Some studies yet report sociological findings that show dissatisfaction of local residents with how the rural tourism develops as well as the lack of socio-economic improvement [41]. It should be noted, however, that a survey method is rather subjective and may somewhat distort the actual picture. In particular, the study on minority involvement in tourism development used a detailed survey to collect data [42]. The results were somewhat contradicting: respondents’ subjective attitudes towards the benefit from tourism failed to match the statistics. At the opposite ends of the spectrum were respondents living in Hemu and Baihada and respondents from the Kanas village. The first group expressed satisfaction with the rural tourism sector, whilst the second group was of a different opinion. These results may be locale-dependent. Apart from that, data point to the higher welfare in Hemu and Baihada as compared to Kanas. This factor could also affect the attitude towards rural tourism. A study regarding the impact of rural tourism on the local economy is the most optimistic [43]. For example, an ever-increasing number of rural residents have been found to have a positive attitude toward rural tourism.

Among the research literature describing in particular the Chinese experience, there is a significant gap in relation to two areas of research. The first area is long-term assessments of residents’ perception of well-being or economic growth in their regions due to active tourism development. The second area is respondents’ assessment of certain major factors affecting welfare. This study assesses those socio-economic factors that are primarily noticeable to the average villager (rural–urban migration, changing economic conditions, and cultural heritage preservation).

The work aimed to find a positive correlation between tourism development in rural areas and local welfare through a comparative statistical analysis of subjective perceptions of the economic situation in a region, migration, and cultural heritage preservation and restoration. The study objective was to find statistical evidence/rebuttal of three hypotheses (H):


Tourism development in North Guangxi villages is influenced by the economic conditions in these areas.


Tourism development in North Guangxi rural areas suspends the rural–urban migration.


Rural tourism impacts cultural heritage preservation in North Guangxi villages.

Each hypothesis stems from a special questionnaire that has been assessed using statistical methods (Student's t-test).

Research methodology

Data collection

The Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, commonly referred to as Guangxi, is located in South China. By population, it is 11th largest administrative unit in China. The Guangxi’s most populous ethnic groups are Han (66%) and Zhuang (33%). Other ethnic groups, such as Yao, Miao, Hui, etc., make up the minority of the population. The ancestors of people dwelling in this region lived in the mountain areas and their welfare was rather poor. Apart from that, they were condemned to share the land with many other ethnic groups. It is likely that cultural exchange and hard life were the sources of a unique lifestyle, traditions and beliefs among the peoples of the North Guangxi [44].

The northern region of Guangxi borders with the mountainous province Guizhou. It is located on the edge of the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau. The area is sheltered by mountains and has a mountain climate with long wet summers and short dry winters. The climate and abundance in water bodies permit the century-old practices of rice cultivation and fishing [45]. Furthermore, the monsoon climate is the main factor that determines the distribution of forests across the North Guangxi area. The landscape had a strong influence on the local architecture. For instance, the traditional construction material here is wood harvested from the surrounding forests [46].

Based on the above, the region does not have great natural resource potential or a developed production. Therefore, the region relies mainly on tourism business development, which is facilitated by a variety of landscapes, natural parks, and architecture, which are attractive to domestic and foreign tourists. Specific villages have been selected for research due to the fact that they have intensively developed tourist services over the past 25 years, which makes them the best base for research in this region.

The study involved 50 residents over the age of 40 living in the following villages of suburban Nanning: Luokun, Supencun, and Chang Jiang Ling (Figs. 1 and 2). Both the 2010 and 2020 surveys involved the same participants who were selected in 2010. The selection was carried out by the method of random sampling, taking into account filtering by age, as indicated below. A confidence level was p = 0.05; the admissible probability of sampling error was no more than 2.75 for both surveys. Thus, the sample can be considered statistically representative for the population of these villages over the age of 40. The survey was conducted after obtaining consent to participate from each of the participants. Participants received instructions on how to complete the questionnaire. In both surveys, all completed questionnaires were returned within a month; all questionnaires were found to be suitable and correct.

Fig. 1
figure 1

Map showing the location of villages under study (the satellite view, Google maps)

Fig. 2
figure 2

The satellite image showing villages Luocun and Supencun (Google maps)

The age threshold was included to ensure that all respondents understand the events of the past decades and are capable of judging them objectively. The study was conducted without regard to gender and occupation. For this, the questionnaire was constructed to avoid possible correlation between gender, age, and occupation.

Research design

A survey of 50 participants was conducted twice: in 2010 and 2020, the arithmetic mean of the responses of all participants for a particular indicator was calculated, this value was taken as a percentage. The calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel.

All data collected from surveys were exposed to the Shapiro–Wilk test for Gaussian distribution. This step is crucial for applying the Student’s t-test under alternative hypotheses. The results are presented in Table 4. The first and second columns show the year of the survey and hypothesis number, which corresponds to a particular survey used. The third and fourth columns show the arithmetic mean Xav and the variance s2. The last two columns contain empirical and critical values of Shapiro–Wilk test. If the empirically derived value is greater than the critical value, then data from the survey follow the normal distribution. As it can be seen, all empirical values in the table are beyond the critical threshold.

The study employed a Student’s t-test to statistically evaluate information collected via paired surveys. This procedure yielded results that were more objective as compared to inputs (unprocessed feedback). This was achieved thanks to a 10 year interval between the paired surveys conducted in 2010 and 2020, respectively. This approach helped to assess not so much the subjective perception, but the changes that have occurred with the development of rural tourism.

In spite of a rather objective assessment, there is a likelihood that socio-economic changes in the target villages may be a result of the foreign and domestic policies over the past 10 years. The overall improvement in the country’s welfare may also be a factor.

Ethical issues

All study participants took part on the basis of free consent. No personal data of the participants were collected, stored or analyzed. To send the questionnaires, special individualized electronic mailboxes were used, which guaranteed the accuracy and anonymity of the study.

Research limitation

The survey included 50 respondents, which is one of study limitations. It was important to get the opinion of people over the age of 40, who would adequately answer questions about the events of the last 25 years and who are not tourism professionals, which increased assessment subjectivity. In addition, the survey was conducted twice (in 2010 and 2020), with the same participants interviewed. The study also covers a small region, which has its own specific historical, ethnographic, and economic characteristics. The confidence level was 0.05, the margin of error did not exceed 2.75 for each time period, so the survey can be considered statistically representative.


The study involved three pairwise independent surveys that correspond to a particular research hypothesis, each taken twice in 2010 and 2020. The results are depicted in Tables 13. The first column on the left shows the number of the question from a particular survey (see Appendix 1). The second and third columns show the results for 2010 and 2020, respectively. The results are presented as a percentage of change in the welfare indicator since the last decade. Each variable is an arithmetic mean of all responses.

Table 1 First survey results

Table 1 contains indicators of tourism business' impact on economic conditions. As one can see, the financial ability to buy home appliances over 10 years has increased from 10 to 24%, travel services—from 12 to 26%, educational services—from 11 to 27%, jewelry—from 9% (the lowest figure) to 25%, to make savings—from 13 to 28% (the highest figure). In general, there is a trend of doubling the purchasing power.

Table 2 contains indicators of the impact of tourism on migration from rural to urban areas. The percentage of new jobs for 2020 significantly decreased compared to 2010—from 46 to 19, wage increase percentage also more than halved—from 48 to 21, comfort and safety of the workplace decreased—from 45 to 17% (and this was the smallest indicator). Employment in agriculture decreased from 47 to 18%, the percentage of new medical and educational institutions decreased from 49 (which was the maximum indicator) to 20. Thus, one can see the preconditions for the outflow of labor force from the villages to the cities.

Table 2 Second survey results

Table 3 contains indicators of the impact of tourism business on cultural heritage preservation. Compared to 2010, in 2020 the percentage of attractions increased from 10 to 24, the percentage of maintenance of public areas increased from 12 to 26, the percentage of working cafes and restaurants increased from 11 to 27. The percentage of variety of food and beverages increased from 13 to 28 (maximum value), the percentage of renovation of cultural heritage sites—from 9 (minimum value) to 25. It can be said that the tourism sphere has a favorable effect on cultural heritage preservation.

Table 3 Third survey results

As it can be seen, all quantities are positive whole numbers. Furthermore, paired data sets from Tables 1 and 3 demonstrate an increase in indicators over time, whilst data in Table 2 are indicative of an opposite trend. Differences between the paired quantities are equal regardless of both the hypothesis being tested and the question number.

The results of the Shapiro–Wilk test for Gaussian distribution (for normal distribution of surveys 2010 and 2020) are presented in Table 4. Hence, data under consideration follow the normal distribution and may be assigned to the Student’s t-test.

Table 4 Data sets analysis for normal distribution

Besides normal distribution, zero duplication of data is required. Furthermore, the minimum amount of data sets within one survey is 4. Since all conditions were met, the Student’s two-sample t-test may be applied.

The results of statistical hypothesis testing are depicted in Table 5. The first column indicates hypothesis number. Second to seventh columns display variances sx, mathematical expectations mi, arithmetic means Xavi, and index I, which takes values 1 and 2 depending on the survey year (i.e., 2010 and 2020, respectively). The last two columns show empirical and critical values of Student’s t-test. As it may be seen, all variances are equal.

Table 5 Testing the hypotheses

The alternative hypothesis is confirmed if the empirical value of Student’s t-test exceeds its critical value.

Since differences between data sets are significant, all hypotheses may be considered confirmed. This conclusion derives not only from the t-test results, but also from the upward trend of indicators over time. The given data frames were rather small, which significantly affected the accuracy of the Shapiro–Wilk test. For higher accuracy, the survey form needs to have more questions in the future. Furthermore, the study neglected the general economic and political changes that took place in China during the research period. To some extent, these changes could have been influential for the present results, so they should be considered in the future.


The impact of tourism on the socio-economic conditions in the rural areas was central to many research papers. For instance, it was found that rural tourism development in Guangxi villages had a significant impact on poverty alleviation and economic growth [47]. That finding is consistent with the results of this study. The present study shows that people have at least doubled their purchasing power in the last ten years.

Another research took a study method similar to one applied here to reveal a positive correlation between rural tourism development in Guangxi and the growth of both well-being and small business [48]. There are studies that argue that the economic component may have little bearing on tourism [49], in the presence of an unstable political situation. The study does not refute this opinion as conflicts can act as a powerful influence factor that levels the positive role of tourism; in the present case, there were no such factors, so the results are different.

As for migration, the present results show an outflow of population from villages to cities—fewer and fewer people are employed in agriculture, new jobs are not created, wages are not increased, and new medical and educational institutions are not created in villages. In some studies, when tourism becomes the key economic direction of rural areas, migration from there decreases [18]. In the current case, the factor of tourism development cannot outweigh other socio-economic factors determining migration development. The problem of rural-to-urban migration is not only observed in China [50], but also around the world [51, 52]. To solve it, it is not enough to develop a single component of the service sector (tourism), it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive reform of regional policy, to include agriculture in the priorities [30, 31].

Researchers note that the welfare of tourism business owners is, on the one hand, the result of tourism business development, and on the other hand, becomes a predictor of further development [53]. Big data studies on the development of regions, where climatic, natural, and cultural heritage is preserved for tourism purposes, show a more rapid increase in subjective well-being and objective quality of life indicators of the local population [54].

The results have confirmed that tourism affects cultural heritage preservation; with the development of tourism business has increased the number of attractions, cultural sites, institutions. Similar studies also note the positive impact of tourism in the socio-cultural aspect [18].


Thus, the study confirms the hypothesis H1 that the development of tourism depends on economic conditions; it has been traced that local residents can afford to spend money or make savings now much more than 10 years ago, it means that they have the financial resources. The work also confirmed hypothesis H3 that tourism affects the cultural heritage, the whole sphere of culture (as there are more sights and interesting tourism objects, they are maintained at the proper level). As for hypothesis H2 on the impact of tourism on migration, the development of the tourism business has not been able to stop the rate of migration of the working-age population from rural to urban areas. Based on the received information, one can explain this by the wrong regional policy—agriculture is not developing properly, new jobs are not being created, and the existing ones do not meet modern requirements. Local residents have no financial motivation to choose to work in the agricultural sector, in addition, educational and medical institutions are not modernized, new ones are not built—the able-bodied population will leave such villages. Thus, one can say that in this case tourism did not stop the process of migration and hypothesis H2 was not confirmed.

The findings are relevant precisely for the regional characteristics of the villages studied; in other natural, cultural, social and political conditions tourism business may impact differently on rural residents' welfare. The study results were evaluated using statistical methods to avoid misinterpretations.

The results of the work are important first of all for politicians, so that they make the right managerial decisions for the development, rather than degradation of rural areas. The study can be useful to workers in the tourism sector to implement and improve the mechanisms of agritourism development. Further researchers can focus their attention on the participation of local people in tourism business development and the preservation of the natural and cultural heritage of unique rural regions.

Availability of data and materials

Data will be available on request.

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This article is prepared within the Research on Ecological Design of The Reconstruction of Ancient Villages in Northern Guangxi 2018KY0910, the 2018 Basic Ability Improvement Project for young and middle-aged Teachers in Guangxi Universities, and 2020 Guangxi Philosophy and Social Science Planning Issues: Study on the Benefit Measurement of Targeted Poverty Alleviation and the Construction of Long-term Mechanism for Stable Poverty Alleviation of Guangxi Ethnic Villages Tourism , Project number: 20FMZ024.


This research received no external funding.

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Authors and Affiliations



XZ—conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, resources, data curation, writing—original draft preparation, writing—review and editing, visualization, supervision, project administration, funding acquisition. The author read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Xin Zhang.

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Appendix 1

Survey 1

Impact of tourism business development on the economic conditions in rural areas

  1. 1.

    What percentage of household appliances is affordable compared to the past decade?

  2. 2.

    What percentage of cross-border travel services is affordable compared to the past decade?

  3. 3.

    What percentage of education services is affordable compared to the past decade?

  4. 4.

    What percentage of income is savable compared to the past decade?

  5. 5.

    What percentage of fine jewelry is affordable compared to the past decade?

Survey 2

Impact of tourism business development on the rural–urban migration process

  1. 1.

    What percentage of jobs is out there compared to the past decade?

  2. 2.

    What percentage of earnings was received from wages compared to the past decade?

  3. 3.

    To what extent your workplace is comfortable and safe compared to the past decade? (write in percentage).

  4. 4.

    What percentage of the population is employed in agriculture?

  5. 5.

    What percentage of medical and educational institutions is open compared to the past decade?

Survey 3

Impact of tourism business development on cultural heritage preservation

  1. 1.

    What percentage of cultural attractions function compared to the past decade?

  2. 2.

    What percentage of community area maintenance was delivered compared to the past decade?

  3. 3.

    What percentage of cafes and restaurants is open compared to the past decade?

  4. 4.

    What percentage of diverse foods and beverages is available compared to the past decade?

  5. 5.

    How well are cultural heritage sites renewed compared to the past decade?

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Zhang, X. RETRACTED ARTICLE: Impact of rural tourism on residents’ well-being in traditional ancient villages: a case of North Guangxi. Herit Sci 9, 138 (2021).

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