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Table 1 Comparison of the tested commercial cellulose ether products

From: Are cellulose ethers safe for the conservation of artwork? New insights in their VOC activity by means of Oddy testing

Product name Supplier Date of purchase Type Viscosity MW O Ag Cu Pb Corrosion product Additional information Batch/product no.
Klucel® E Deffner (Hercules) unknown HPC 7 (2%) 80,000 T P P T not identified   2,440,010
Klucel® E Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 HPC 7 (2%) 80,000 T P P T Massicot, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1 2,440,010
Klucel® E Kremer (Ashland) 11.2021 HPC 7 (2%) 80,000 T P P T Litharge, hydrocerussite, plumbonacrite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1 63,700
Klucel® G GMW (Ashland) 03.2017 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 P P P P   MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® G Deffner (Ashland) 08.2021 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 T P P T Massicot, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® G Kremer (Ashland) 11.2021 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 T P P T Litharge, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1 63,706
Klucel® G IND Ashland 11.2021 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 T P P T Litharge, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® GF Ashland 11.2021 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 T P P T Litharge, plumbonacrite MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® GF Pharm Ashland 11.2021 HPC 125–450 (2%) 370,000 P P P P   MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® M Deffner unknown HPC 3500–7500 (2%) 850,000 F P T F Cuprite; massicot, hydrocerussite, plumbonacrite, basic lead acetate MS: 2.0–4.1  
Klucel® M Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 HPC 3500–7500 (2%) 850,000 P P P P   MS: 2.0–4.1 2,440,210
Klucel® M Kremer (Ashland) 11.2021 HPC 3500–7500 (2%) 850,000 P P P P   MS: 2.0–4.1 63,710
Klucel® H Kremer 09.2021 HPC 30,000 (2%) 1,150,000 P P P P   MS: 2.0–4.1 63,712
Klucel® L Hercules 21.01.2000 HPC 65–175 (5%) 95,000 T P P T Hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate   
Klucel® MF Hercules 12.04.2006 HPC 4000–6500 (2%) 850,000 F P F F Cuprite; massicot, hydrocerussite, lead formate   66,534
Klucel® JF Kremer (Hercules) unknown HPC 150–400 (5%) 140,000 F P F F Cuprite; massicot, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate   
Klucel® 99E Aqualon (Hercules) 22.04.1994 HPC unknown   T P P T Hydrocerussite, basic (?) lead acetate   
Klucel® 99L Aqualon (Hercules) unknown HPC unknown   T P P T Massicot, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate   
Natrosol 250 MHBR Hercules 05.03.2004 HEC 1000–1500 (1%)   F P P F Massicot, hydrocerussite, basic (?) lead acetate DS: 1.5  
Natrosol 250 HHX Hercules 05.03.2007 HEC 3500–5000 (1%) 1,300,000 P P P P   DS: 1.5  
Tylose® H 100,000 YP2 Shin Etsu 11.2016 HEC 4200–5500 (1%)   T P P T Massicot, hydrocerussite, basic(?) lead acetate Min. 88% active substance; glyoxal < 0.01%  
Tylose® MH 300 G4 Clariant 05.2000 HEC unknown   P P P P    
Hydroxyethylcelluose Fluka unknown HEC unknown   F P T F Cuprite, tenorite; massicot, plumbonacrite, basic lead acetate, lead acetate trihydrate   
Ethylcellulose ET 200 Kremer 17.11.2015 EC 150–250 (5% 80/20 toluene/ethanol)   F P P F Massicot, litharge, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate Ethoxy content 40.6–51.5% 63,720
Methyl cellulose Sigma 08.2021 MC 3500–5600 (2%)   T P P T Massicot, litharge, hydrocerussite   M0512-100G Lot#SLC65985
Methocel® A4M Deffner (Dow) 09.2021 MC 4000 (2%) 86,000 P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5%; max. 1.5% NaCl 2,440,310
Methocel® A4M Dow 12.1997 MC 4000 (2%) 86,000 P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5%; max. 1.5% NaCl JG17012N01
Methocel® A4MFG Dow 10.2003 MC 4000 (2%) 86,000 P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5%; max. 1.5% NaCl  
Methocel® A15C Dow 06.1992 MC 1500 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5% 90,111,401
Methocel® A4C Dow 06.1992 MC 400 (2%) 41,000 P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5% 91,032,901
Culminal® MC 15 S Hercules unknown MC 10–20 (2%)   F P T F Cuprite; massicot, hydrocerussite, plumbonacrite, lead formate Methoxyl content 24–32%  
Culminal® MC 25 S Aqualon (Hercules) 1992 MC 25–35 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 24–32% 9298
Culminal® MC 7000 PF Hercules 04.2005 MC 7000–9500 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 24–32%  
Benecel A4M Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 MC 2700–5000 (2%)   P P P P   Max. 0.8% NaCl 2,440,310
Benecel A4C Kremer (Ashland) 09.2021 MC 320–480 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 27.5–31.5%, max. 0.8% NaCl 63,682
Benecel M043 Hercules unknown MC 3800–5700 (2%)   P P P P    VK-4297
Metolose® SM-15 Shin Etsu unknown MC 15 (2%) 45,000 T P T T Cuprite; litharge, hydrocerussite   
Benecel ME 233 P Pharm Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 MHEC 3100–5700 (2%)   P P P P    
Tylose® MH 50 Hoechst unknown MHEC unknown   T P T T Cuprite; litharge, hydrocerussite, basic lead acetate   
Tylose® MH 50 G4 Kremer (Shin Etsu) 09.2021 MHEC 150–250 (2.85%)   P P P P   Min. 89.2% active substance; max. 10% moisture; max. 0.8% NaCl 63,642
Tylose® MH 300 Kremer unknown MHEC 150–450 (2%)   P P P P    6360
Tylose® MH 300 Klebstoff Klug Conservation unknown MHEC 150–450 (2%)   P P P P   Contains methyl 4-hydroxy benzoate (0.07%), propyl 4-hydroxy benzoate (0.03%) 0203
Tylose® MH 300 P2 Kremer 09.2021 MHEC 320–520 (2%)   P P P P   Min. 91.5% active substance; max. 7% moisture; max. 1.5% NaCl 63,600
Tylose® MH 1000 P2 Clariant 12.1997 MHEC unknown   P P P P    611,270,030
Tylose® MH 1000 P2 Kremer 09.2021 MHEC 1000–1700 (2%)   P P P P   Min. 88.5% active substance; max. 10% moisture; max. 1.5% NaCl 63,610
Tylose® MH 30000 YP4 Kremer (Shin Etsu) 09.2021 MHEC 20,000–27,000 (2%)   T P T T Cuprite; massicot, hydrocerussite, lead formate Min. 92.5% active substance; max. 6% moisture; max. 1.5% NaCl 63,663
Culminal® MHPC 400 Aqualon (Hercules) unknown MHPC 400–550 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 24–32%; hydroxypropyl content 2–25%  
Methocel® E5 Premium LV Dow 11.02.2000 MHPC 5 (2%)   T P P T Hydrocerussite Methoxyl content 28–30%; Hydroxypropoxyl content 7–12%  
Methocel® E15FG Dow 11.2003 MHPC 15 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 28–30%; hydroxypropoxyl content 7–12%  
Methocel® K4MFG Dow 10.2003 MHPC 4000 (2%)   T P T T Cuprite; hydrocerussite Methoxyl content 19–24%; hydroxypropyl content 7–12%  
Culminal® MHPC 20000 P Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 MHPC 20,000–27,500 (2%)   P P P P    2,440,510
Culminal® MHPC 20000 P Hercules 04.2005 MHPC 20,000–27,500 (2%)   P P P P   Methoxyl content 24–32%; hydroxypropyl content 2–25%  
Cekol® 700 Kremer (CP Kelco) 09.2021 Na-CMC 400–1000 (2%) 270,000 P P P P   Min. 99.5% purity; DS: 0.60–0.95; Sodium rate: 7.5–9.0% 63,641
Tylose® C6000 Kremer (Hoechst) unknown Na-CMC unknown   T P P T Massicot, hydrocerussite, anglesite   
Blanose® ref CMC 7M65 Deffner (Ashland) 09.2021 Na-CMC 3000–6500 (2%)   P P P P   Min. 99.5% purity; DS: 0.65–0.90; Sodium rate: 7.0–8.9% 2,440,810
Blanose® 7M31 CF Aqualon (Hercules) 1992 Na-CMC 1500–3100 (2%)   P P P P   DS: 0.65–0.90; Sodium rate: 7.0–8.9% 22–6371
Blanose® 7LF Aqualon (Hercules) 1992 Na-CMC 25–50 (2%) 90,000 T P P T Hydrocerussite DS: 0.65–0.90; Sodium rate: 7.0–8.9% 21–5215
Blanose® 7H4Xf Aqualon (Hercules) 1992 Na-CMC 2500–4500 (1%)   T P P T Anglesite DS: 0.65–0.90; Sodium rate: 7.0–8.9% 21–4617
Blanose® 12M31PD Aqualon (Hercules) 1992 Na-CMC 2800 (2%)   P P P P   DS: 1.15–1.45; Sodium rate: 10.5–12.0% 09–6575
Walocel CRT 10000 (9A) Dow Wolff Cellulosics unknown Na-CMC 900–1500 (1%)   P P P P   Min. 99.5% purity  
  1. Synthesis of the results and additional information on the products as provided by the manufacturers. Viscosity = Brookfield RVT (mPa s) 20 °C
  2. MW molecular weight, DS degree of substitution, MS moles of substitution