Skip to main content

Antifungal and consolidation properties of linen textiles treated with silver nanoparticles loaded on hydroxypropyl cellulose polymer


Microorganisms are considered one of the most dangerous deterioration factors to cellulosic textiles, especially textiles made of linen fibers. Many of the traditional methods of resistance to microorganisms that infect textiles were used in the past, but they were of low effectiveness and high toxicity for those who applied these methods. The study used silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared by the chemical reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) in the presence of a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) polymer as a stabilizing agent in inhibiting fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma sp. and Penicillium duclauxii that were isolated from the ancient linen piece No. 1345 preserved in the Sohag National Museum. The properties of the silver nanoparticles prepared and loaded on hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel G 1%) polymer were studied by many of examination and analysis methods such as TEM, XRD and FTIR. Evaluating the effectiveness of AgNPs/Klucel G by using well-cut diffusion technique revealed that the best concentration of AgNPs in inhibiting fungal strains is 3%. The results of treating raw and dyed linen textiles using AgNPs/Klucel G also indicated an improvement in the mechanical and chemical properties of the treated textiles. One of the most important results of the study is obtaining raw and dyed linen textiles with resistant properties to isolated fungal strains up to 3 months of treatment.

Graphical Abstract


Cultural heritage studies ultimately aim to provide, improve and evaluate practical solutions that can control microbial proliferation and thus biological degradation [1]. Archaeological textiles are considered to be an important part of the cultural heritage of civilizations, and the most vulnerable museum collections to damage caused by microorganisms (fungi, bacteria) [2,3,4,5]. The damage caused by microorganisms on archaeological textiles can be seen in the occurrence of a loss in the strength of the textiles, as well as the occurrence of color changes in the infected textiles [6, 7]. This research aims to evaluate silver nanoparticles prepared by the chemical reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a stabilizing agent as an antifungal for fungal strains isolated from an archaeological piece of linen textile preserved in the Sohag National Museum, Egypt. Nanoparticles are a group of atoms whose size ranges between 1–100 nm, which show new properties depending on the size and distribution of those atoms, which gives them preference in application over atoms of materials in the bulk form [8]. Among those nanoparticles are silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), whose use in many applications has shown distinctive properties against a wide range of microorganisms. There are many methods to prepare AgNPs, some of which are prepared chemically, and some are prepared biologically (green synthesis) [9]. However, the most famous and simplest method for preparing AgNPs, which was done by reducing the silver ion Ag+ in an aqueous medium, to result in particles of colloidal silver whose grain size ranges from several nanometers [10]. Silver particles have been recognized for a long time as an antimicrobial agent, characterized by their low toxicity towards humans as well as their various applications within the laboratory [11]. The antimicrobial activities of AgNPs against microorganisms have been monitored, such as the inactivation of Thiol groups for some types of enzymes secreted by microorganisms [12]. The proliferation of the DNA of the microbial cell [13], the modification of the structure of the microbial cell membrane and the creation of electron dense granules in addition to stop microbial cell growth [14]. Ag and AgNPs have been used in many consumer products that humans use, such as the textile industry, in order to give them antimicrobial and odor-resistant functions. The growth of microbes on textiles can be controlled through processing processes by adding antimicrobials or by incorporating bio pesticides during fiber processing operations used in the manufacture of these textiles [15]. It is possible to modify the properties of textiles and give them new properties by adding nanometer materials to them. These materials work to improve the properties of these textiles and give them new properties such as friction resistance, antimicrobial resistance, and protection from ultraviolet radiation, as well as giving them water-repellent properties [16]. There are two basic ways to introduce AgNPs into materials; the first method is by impregnating materials with colloidal solutions of pre-formed nanomaterials, the second method is by impregnating materials with a solution of silver nitrate AgNO3 in the presence of other treatments with reducing agents to convert Ag+ into materials Nanometer NPs. In both cases, there must be a reducing agent, whether in the solution or on the material [17]. The activity of AgNPs in killing such microbes depends on the association of Ag+ particles with vital molecules present in the microbial cell, as it is assumed that AgNPs produce types of reactive oxygen and free radicals that cause the death of microbial cells, and given that AgNPs are smaller in size than living organisms, this helps to spread them inside the microbial cell and tear the microbial cell walls [18]. It is preferable to use AgNPs on textiles as antimicrobial agents better than using traditional antibiotics such as mineral salts and quaternary ammonium compounds because of the stability, resistance and environmental friendliness of these nanoparticles. Also, AgNPs are better than Ag+ because they don’t lead to staining of fabrics. This keeps the textiles ventilated and handled [19].

Materials and methods


  • Silver nitrate (AgNO3) as precursor agent, produced by Sigma-Aldrich.

  • Hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel® G) produced by C.T.S Italia.

  • Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent produced by Sigma-Aldrich.

  • Potato dextrose agar (PDA) produced by (HIMEDIA REF) company used as the nutritional medium of the fungi.

  • Linen textile produced by The Egyptian Textile Industries Company (Dintex) in Cairo. The number of threads per square centimeter of the linen fabric was 33 threads in the warp direction, and 30 threads in the weft direction.

  • Turmeric dye Curcuma longa L. and Madder roots Rubia tinctorum was purchased from the Egyptian local market.


Chemical preparation of silver nanoparticles

Using an aqueous solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a stabilizing agent, the silver nitrate AgNO3 precursor is added, to about 150 ml of deionized water containing 5 g of PVP for the formation of the silver colloid in a concentration of 500 mg/dm, adding drop wise to the silver nitrate solution and stirring for 1 h. Thus, one of the first syntheses consisted in the photo reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PVP as a stabilizing agent using 400 watts ultrasonic irradiation. With this method, silver nanoparticles between 15 and 22 nm can be obtained depending on the molar ratio between AgNO3 and (PVP) [20, 21]. The (poly vinyl pyrrolidone) polymer (PVP) is one of the most widely used stabilizing agents for metallic nanoparticles [22, 23]. As for the process of loading silver nanoparticles prepared on hydroxypropyl cellulose polymer, (0.01, 0.02, 0.03 g) of AgNPs granules were added separately to 100 ml of ethyl alcohol and this solution was stirred for 10 min, after that 1 g of Klucel G powder was added and vigorously shaken using the Sonication process to obtain concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% of AgNPs/Klucel G.

Linen samples processing and dyeing

Raw linen textiles were prepared and washed with hot soapy water, in order to get rid of impurities and sizing materials on the surface of the fibers. Then the turmeric and madder roots were ground well into a powder form, soaked in water for 24 h, and then heated to boiling point for 2 h. The extract was left to cool and then filtered well until a clear and transparent color of dye was obtained [24,25,26]. For dyeing process in the beginning, the linen fibers are moistened with water, then a certain amount of the previously filtered dyeing solution (50 ml per 1 g of dry fabric volume) is taken. The dyeing bath is heated to the boiling point, except for the madder, which is heated at a temperature of 60 °C. The dyeing bath is left at the same temperature. After that, the dyed linen textiles is washed using soapy water, then rinsed with distilled water and left to dry at room temperature for 24 h [27].

Isolation and identification of fungal strains

Three microbial swabs were taken from the ancient linen piece No. 1345 preserved in the Sohag National Museum, by scraping the infected places using sterile swipes [28]. Sterilized Petri dishes containing sterile (PDA) media were inoculated using these swabs. The inoculated dishes were placed in an incubator and maintained at a temperature of 28–30 °C for 1–7 days. The resulting colonies were then purified by repeatedly transferring them onto new PDA Petri dishes to create separate colonies. The resulting microorganisms were subsequently identified. The identification process was carried out using a microscope of type Olympus BX51 compound microscope equipped with Toup Tek XCAM1080PHA (Toup Tek, Zhejiang, China) digital imaging system at Fungi Laboratory, Faculty of Science, Sohag University.

Microbiological study of AgNPs

The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against isolated fungal strains was assessed using the agar well diffusion assay technique according to (Walaa A. Abdel Wahab et al.) with some modifications [29]. This method involves injecting PDA media with each isolated fungal strain separately, then pouring it into sterile Petri dishes. Using a drill, 50 µl of nanoparticles are then placed in this hole, and the plates are then placed in the incubator at a temperature of 28 ± 2 °C for 24–48 h. The diameter of the apparent inhibition zone around the hole is then measured in cm, and the greater the diameter of the inhibition zone, the higher the antifungal efficacy of the nanoparticle [30].

Examination and analysis procedures

Morphological study

The morphological analyses of the prepared AgNPs/Klucel G nanocomposites were investigated by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), where the TEM images were obtained by a JEM-1230 electron microscope operated at 60 kV (JEOL Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Before taking a TEM image, the sample was diluted at least 10 times by water. A drop of well-dispersed diluted sample was placed onto a copper grid (200-mesh and covered with a carbon membrane) and dried at ambient temperature [31,32,33,34]. A scanning electron microscope (Quanta FEG250 NRC) was used for the investigation of the surface morphology of the untreated and treated linen and fine gold coater was used [35, 36].

Mechanical properties

Tensile strengths and elongation of raw and dyed linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G were measured using a US Tinius Olsen device with strength of 5 kN. Test conditions were under 25 °C and 65% relative humidity, the distance between the jaws of the device was 5 cm, and the dimensions of the samples were 3 × 15 cm. The measurement was done according to international standards (ASTM D503506 (2008) standard test method for breaking force and elongation of textile fabrics (strip method) [3, 25, 26].

Colorimetric measurements

Portable colorimeter type (PCE-CSM7 S/N 330242 made in UK), used to measure the different colors of linen sample by CIE Lab colour system before and after treatments to identify any probable color changes might be resulted after AgNPs/Klucel G treatments [37]. Total color change (ΔE*) of linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G was calculated according to the following equation ∆E* = {(ΔL*)2 + (Δb*)2 + (Δa*)2}1/2 [38,39,40,41], where ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* are the changes of the color coordinates L*, a* and b* for the treated samples, compared to untreated sample [42].

Chemical properties
  • ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    FTIR analysis was used to determine the distinctive functional groups of AgNPs/Klucel G, as well as to determine the effect of the treatment process using AgNPs/Klucel G on the functional groups of linen fibers [40]. FTIR measurements were carried out using ATR-FTIR Spectrometer (Bruker Alpha) at the Microchemical Analysis Unit, Faculty of Science—Sohag University—Egypt. The instrument was configured with ATR sample cell including a diamond crystal with a scanning depth up to 2 μm. The spectrum was recorded in absorbance mode over the spectral range 4000–400 cm−1 with a resolution of 4 cm−1 [43].

  • X-ray diffraction

    XRD was used to determine the rate of crystallization of cellulose polymer, the main component of linen fibers, and to determine characterization of prepared AgNPs. The measurement were carried out at the (XRD) unit, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, using a Bruker D8 Advance device at room temperature, and the scanning range of the 2θ angle was 10–30 [44].

Evaluation of the antifungal properties of linen treated with AgNPs/Klucel G

The disk diffusion method according to Lo´pez-Oviedo et al. was used, with some modifications, to evaluate the antifungal properties of linen fibers treated with AgNPs/Klucel G [45]. Where raw and dyed linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G were cut in 3 × 3 dimensions, then using a sterilization cabinet and PDA culture medium inoculated with fungal strains. The culture medium inoculated with fungal spores was poured into Petri dishes, then, after the medium hardens, the linen samples that were previously cut are placed, then the medium containing the fungus spores and the treated linen samples are incubated at temperature 28 ± 2 °C for 24–48 h. Then the diameter of the apparent inhibition zone around the linen sample is measured in cm this test was done on treated linen samples after a period of 1 and 3 months.

Results and discussion

Identification of isolated fungal strains

Through microscopic examination, it was found that the isolates belong to the fungal genera Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp. and Penicillium sp. [25]. Were Fig. 1 shows the morphology of the spores of the isolated fungal, and through previous studies, the presence of these fungal strains has been proven in many Egyptian museums such as the Egyptian Museum and the Coptic Museum [46, 47].

Fig. 1
figure 1

The morphology of the fungal strains isolated from the archaeological linen, where a Aspergillus flavus, b Penicillium duclauxii, and c Trichoderma sp.

Characterizations of AgNPs prepared by the chemical reduction of AgNO3

Through the X-ray diffraction pattern in Fig. 2 of AgNPs prepared by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PVP as a stabilizing agent, the pattern is attributed to the sharp values of the diffraction angle 2θ specified at 44.381, 64.573, 77.557, 81.715, and 38.185, corresponding to (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) for a cubic diffraction pattern of AgNPs, and these results were according to the induction card of AgNPs (JCPDS File No. 04-0783) [48].

Fig. 2
figure 2

(XRD) pattern of AgNPs prepared by using PVP as a stabilizing agent

The FTIR pattern in Fig. 3 for the prepared silver nanoparticles showed the appearance of some spectral bands such as 3421 cm−1, which is a band compatible with the extension of the amine group (N–H), 2922 cm−1, which corresponds to the extension of the alkenes group (C–H), 1383 cm−1, which is a characteristic band for vibration in (NO3) group. The vibration at the spectral range 1113 cm−1 is a distinctive range for the PVP polymer used in the AgNO3 reduction processes for the preparation of silver nanoparticles. The presence of the spectral range 1622 cm−1 indicates the expansion of the carbonyl group (C=O) in the PVP polymer used in the preparation of AgNPs [48]. The appearance of the spectral band 1057 cm−1 is due to the expansion of the primary bond (C–OH) [49].

Fig. 3
figure 3

FTIR-ATR of AgNPs prepared by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PVP polymer as a stabilizing agent

Particles size of AgNPs prepared by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PVP polymer as a stabilizing agent were studied using TEM, where the size of the granules before loading on hydroxypropyl cellulose polymer ranged from 2–3 nm and after loading 9–13 nm as shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
figure 4

The size of the AgNPs where a size particles before loading on Klucel G polymer, b size of the particles after loading

Antifungal properties of AgNPs/Klucel G

The inhibition zone diameter of AgNPs/Klucel G against fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma sp, and Penicillium duclauxii was measured using the well-cut diffusion technique. The diameter of the inhibition zone of the AgNPs/Klucel G + H2O2 clearly shows that the best concentration to inhibit fungal strains with high efficiency is 3%, as shown in Fig. 5 and Table 1. Moreover, the diameter of the inhibition zone, which reached at a concentration of 3% to 5 cm, also clearly demonstrates that the AgNPs/ Klucel G + H2O2 were more effective in inhibiting the fungal strain Trichoderma sp.

Fig. 5
figure 5

The inhibition zone of AgNPs with a concentration of 1, 2 and 3% loaded on Klucel G polymer with a concentration of 1%

Table 1 Inhibition zone diameter in cm for AgNPs loaded on Klucel G polymer against fungal strains

It is also clear that the AgNPs/ Klucel G were more effective in inhibiting the fungal strain Trichoderma sp., as is evident from the diameter of the inhibition zone, which reached at a concentration 3% to 5 cm as shown in Table 1.

Surface morphology of linen fibers treated with AgNPs3%/Klucel G1%

Microscopic examination using SEM of linen fibers treated with AgNPs3%/Klucel G1% showed good coverage and packaging of the treated fibers, which appears in giving the fibers smooth surface compared to the untreated sample as shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Linen fibers treated with AgNPs3%/Klucel G1%.were a sample before treatment, while b sample after the treatment

Mechanical properties of linen textiles treated with AgNPs/Klucel G

Application of treatment with AgNPs 3% + Klucel G1% + H2O2 3% forms a film on the surface of the linen textiles, in addition to the penetration of the treatment solution into the inner regions of the fibers. This resulted in an improvement in the mechanical (tensile strength and elongation) properties of treated linen textiles as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Tensile strength and elongation of linen samples before and after treatment with AgNPs/Klucel G

The effect of treatment with AgNPs3%/Klucel G1% on the colorimetric measurements of linen textiles

The color change properties of treated linen samples were studied. where it is noted that the samples increased in darkness as is evident in the value of L*, which refers to the rates of the dark of the samples or their brightness (black–white), as it expresses the lowest value on the dark of the samples, while the value from (0–100) on the brightness of the samples [50, 51]. Where the value of L* before treatment for the raw linen sample was 65.33, but after treatment, it is noted that this value decreased to 55.81, which confirms the increase in the rate of darkening of the sample after treatment, as well as the rest of the dyed samples. It is also noted that the total color difference values ∆E* for the raw and dyed linen samples after treatment increased significantly, as the value of ∆E* for the raw linen sample after treatment reached 13.30, which is an unacceptable rate in the textile treatment process, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 Color change values of raw and dyed linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G

Through the color change values in Table 3, it is clear that the treatment solution resulted in color changes that cannot be approved or applied to textiles, so a 3% hydrogen peroxide solution H2O2 was used as a bleaching agent that helps transform the color of the treatment solution into a transparent color [52] as shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7
figure 7

AgNPs/Klucel G solution before and after adding H2O2 as a bleaching agent

Where a solution of H2O2was used at the rate of 1 ml per 5 ml of the treatment solution. By applying a nanometer silver solution to which bleach is added, a significant improvement is observed in the color change values of raw and dyed linen samples. As the value of ∆E* for the raw linen sample treated with AgNPs/Klucel G/H2O2 was observed. ∆E* 1.13, while the linen sample treated with a silver solution to which the H2O2 was not added was 13.30 as shown in Tables 3, 4.

Table 4 Color change values for linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G/H2O2

Crystallinity index of linen textiles treated with AgNPs/Klucel G/H2O2

Through XRD analysis, the effect of treating linen fibers with AgNPs/Klucel G was evaluated by measuring the crystallinity index of cellulose polymer, the main component of linen fibers. The crystallinity index is calculated according to the Segal peak height method a maximum intensity value I002 is found between the scattering angles of 2θ = 22° and 23°. The minimum value Iam is taken using a minimum in the data, typically between 2θ = 18° and 19 [53,54,55], then the crystallization index of fibers before and after the treatment was carried out using the following equation:

$$\mathrm{CI}=\frac{\mathrm{IC}-\mathrm{Iam }}{\mathrm{IC}}\times 100$$

where CI expresses the Crystalline Index, which is calculated according to the previous equation, IC represents the highest crystalline point in the sample and Iam represents the amorphous region in the sample [44]. And by measuring the crystalline and amorphous area of the linen samples before and after treatment, it is clear that there has been an improvement and increase in the polymerization index of cellulose, the main component of the fibers, Whereas, the crystallization index of the raw linen sample dyed with turmeric and madder before treatment with AgNPs/Klucel G reached 55.44, 80.2 and 75.3% respectively and it increased after treatment to become58.56, 80.8 and 78.4% shown in Table 5.

Table 5 Crystallinity index of linen samples before and after treatment with AgNPs/Klucel G

The effect of treatment with AgNPs3%/Klucel G1% on the chemical structure of linen textiles

The results obtained from the ATR-FTIR spectrum Fig. 8 of the treated linen sample compared to untreated sample proved that, Increasing the intensity of vibration in the spectral range 435.32 cm−1 and the spectral range 1023.44 cm−1, which are two distinct bands for the crystallization processes of cellulosic fibers. Increasing the intensity of vibration expresses an increase in the rate of crystallization of samples [56]. This result is consistent with the results of measuring the crystallization rates of samples by (XRD), which confirmed an increase in the crystallization rate of the sample after treatment compared to the untreated sample. The intensity of the band 1113.32 cm−1 reflects the PVP polymer used in the AgNO3 reduction process used in the preparation of silver nanoparticles, and the spectral band 1622.63 cm−1 appeared, which is characteristic of the expansion of the carbonyl group in the PVP polymer [48]. The appearance of the spectral band 2922.44 cm−1 is compatible with a C–H extension of the alkenes group [49].

Fig. 8
figure 8

ATR-FTIR spectrum of the treated and untreated linen textiles

Antifungal properties of raw and dyed linen samples

The disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the anti-fungal properties of linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G + H2O2, which revealed the presence of a large diameter inhibition zone around the treated linen samples incubated with fungal strains isolated previously from the Sohag National Museum, demonstrating the high effectiveness of the treatment compound used to give linen fiber resistance to fungal strains, even after 3 months of treatment, as shown in Figs. 9, 10 and 11.

Fig. 9
figure 9

Inhibition zone for linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G incubated with A. flavus, where a inhibition zone after 1 month, b inhibition zone after 3 months

Fig. 10
figure 10

Inhibition zone for linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G incubated with P. duclauxii, where a inhibition zone after 1 month, b inhibition zone after 3 months

Fig. 11
figure 11

Inhibition zone for linen samples treated with AgNPs/Klucel G incubated with Trichoderma sp., where a inhibition zone after 1 month, b inhibition zone after 3 months


The preventive conservation of archaeological textiles is one of the most important requirements for preserving the cultural heritage. The study used AgNPs prepared by the chemical reduction of AgNO3 in the presence of PVP polymer as a stabilizing agent, By studying the properties of the prepared AgNPs, it was found that the size of their granules by examination and imaging using TEM ranged between 2–3 nm and 7–13 nm after loading those particles on Klucel G 1% polymer. The microbiological study using well-cut diffusion technique of AgNPs/Klucel G demonstrated the effectiveness of AgNPs at a concentration of 3% in inhibiting fungal strains A. flavus, Trichoderma sp. and P. duclauxii that were isolated from the ancient linen piece No. 1345 preserved in the Sohag National Museum in Egypt. The study also demonstrated the occurrence of color changes in raw and dyed linen textiles after applying AgNPs/Klucel G to them. The study was able to reduce these color changes by adding a bleaching solution of H2O2 at a concentration of 3% to a solution of AgNPs/Klucel G. And by applying AgNPs/Klucel G + H2O2 to raw and dyed textiles and evaluating the different properties of textiles before and after treatment, a significant improvement was found in the tensile strength and elongation of samples after treatment, as well as a significant improvement and increase in the crystallization index of cellulose polymer, the main component of linen fibers after treatment.

Availability of data and materials

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article and its additional information files.


  1. Trovão J, Portugal A. Evaluation of the antifungal efficiency of biocides currently applied in the Coimbra UNESCO area limestone monuments. Conservar Património. 2023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed HE. Strategy for preservation of ptolemaic wrapped Mummy’s Linen In Tuna El-Gebel Excavation, Egypt. A case study. Int J Conserv Sci. 2011;2(3):155–216.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmed HE, Marouf S, Mohamed WS. Antifungal activity assessment of nanocomposites of natural chitosan and gelatin with a mahogany plant extract for conservation of historical textiles. Herit Sci. 2022;10:198.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Brzozowska I, Bogdanowicz A, Szczęsny P, Zielenkiewicz U, Laudy A. Evaluation of bacterial diversity on historical silk velvet textiles from the Museum of King John III’s Palace at Wilanów, Poland. Int Biodeterior Biodegrad. 2018;131:78–87.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Tímár-Balázsy Á, Eastop D. Chemical principles of textile conservation. 1st ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann; 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Ramasamy F. A review on the investigation of biologically active natural compounds on cotton fabrics as an antibacterial textile finishing. Int Res J Sci Technol. 2019;1(1):49–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Sülar V, Devrim G. Biodegradation behaviour of different textile fibres: visual, morphological, structural properties and soil analyses. Fibres Text East Europe. 2019;27:100–10.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Ibrahim OM, Saliem AH, Salih SI. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Al-Anbar J Vet Sci. 2016;9(1):22–36.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Siddiqi KS, Husen A. Fabrication of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by algae and their toxic effects. Nanoscale Res Lett. 2016;11:363.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Nakamura S, Sato M, Sato Y, Ando N, Takayama T, Fujita M, Ishihara M. Synthesis and application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) for the prevention of infection in healthcare workers. Int J Mol Sci. 2019;20(15):3620.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Farooqui MA, Chauhan PS, Krishnamoorthy P, Shaik J. Extraction of silver nanoparticles from the leaf extracts of Clerodendrum inerme. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct. 2010;5(1):43–9.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Feng QL, Wu J, Chen GQ, Cui FZ, Kim TN, Kim JO. A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;52(4):662–8.;2-3.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Matsumura Y, Yoshikata K, Kunisaki SI, Tsuchido T. Mode of bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69(7):4278–81.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Lok CN, Ho CM, Chen R, He QY, Yu WY, Sun H, Tam PK, Chiu JF, Che CM. Proteomic analysis of the mode of antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. J Proteome Res. 2006;5(4):916–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Lorenz C, Windler L, von Goetz N, Lehmann RP, Schuppler M, Hungerbühler K, Heuberger M, Nowack B. Characterization of silver release from commercially available functional (nano) textiles. Chemosphere. 2012;89(7):817–24.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Spielman-Sun E, Zaikova T, Dankovich T, Yun J, Ryan M, Hutchison JE, Lowry GV. Effect of silver concentration and chemical transformations on release and antibacterial efficacy in silver-containing textiles. NanoImpact. 2018;11:51–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Emam HE, Manian AP, Široká B, Duelli H, Redl B, Pipal A, Bechtold T. Treatments to impart antimicrobial activity to clothing and household cellulosic-textiles—why “Nano”-silver? J Clean Prod. 2013;39:17–23.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Siddiqi KS, Husen A, Rao RA. A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties. J Nanobiotechnol. 2018;16(1):1–28.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Deshmukh SP, Patil SM, Mullani SB, Delekar SD. Silver nanoparticles as an effective disinfectant: a review. Mater Sci Eng, C. 2019;97:954–65.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Zielińska A, Skwarek E, Zaleska A, Gazda M, Hupka J. Preparation of silver nanoparticles with controlled particle size. Procedia Chem. 2009;1(2):1560–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Wang H, Qiao X, Chen J, Wang X, Ding S. Mechanisms of PVP in the preparation of silver nanoparticles. Mater Chem Phys. 2005;94(2–3):449–53.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Rónavári A, Bélteky P, Boka E, Zakupszky D, Igaz N, Szerencsés B, Pfeiffer I, Kónya Z, Kiricsi M. Polyvinyl-pyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles—the colloidal, chemical, and biological consequences of steric stabilization under biorelevant conditions. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(16):8673.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Zein R, Alghoraibi I, Soukkarieh C, Ismail MT, Alahmad A. Influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone concentration on properties and anti-bacterial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles. Micromachines. 2022;13(5):777.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Elnagar K, Reda SM, Ahmed HE, Kamal S. Studying irradiation homogeneity in light aging for historical textile conservation. Fibers Polym. 2013;14:1581–5.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. AboElmaaref M, Marouf M, Mohamed WS, AbdelWahab WA. Initial survey to fungal deterioration of archaeological linen textiles in Sohag National Museum. Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2020;1(2):1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Abo Elmaaref M, Marouf M, Mohamed W, Abdel WW. The effect of the accelerated laboratory ageing factors on linen textiles dyed with turmeric dye. Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2021;2(1):31–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Abdel-Kreem O. Evaluation of the dyes used in conservation and restoration of archaeological textiles. أدوماتو Adumatu. 2009;20:21–36.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Omar A, Taha A, El-Wekeel F. Microbial degradation of ancient textiles housed in The Egyptian Textile Museum and methods of its control. Egypt J Archaeol Restor Stud. 2019;9(1):27–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Abdel Wahab WA, El-Dein AN, Hussein M, Mostafa FA, Saleh SA. Kinetic, thermodynamic and bio-applicable studies on Aspergillus niger Mk981235 Chitinase. Catal Lett. 2022;153:1089–95.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Abd-Elnaby HM, Abo-Elala GM, Abdel-Raouf UM, Hamed MM. Antibacterial and anticancer activity of extracellular synthesized silver nanoparticles from marine Streptomyces rochei MHM13. Egypt J Aquat Res. 2016;42(3):301–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Elorib R, Mohamed W, Al Karadwi A. Evaluation of the impact of silica and alumina nanocomposites in consolidation and protection of corroded glass from early islamic period in Egypt: an multiscientific experimental and analytical study. Mediterranean Archaeol Archaeom. 2022;22(1):67–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Mohamed MH, Mohamed WS. Evaluating nano Primal AC33 for protection and consolidation processes of archaeological pottery: a comparison study with silica and montmorillonite nanoparticles. Pigment Resin Technol. 2023.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Mohamed MI, Mohamed WS, Mohamed MH. Experimental study for evaluation of Paraloid® B72 and its nanocomposite with nano TiO2 and nano Zno for consolidation of pottery samples. Sci Cult. 2021;7(2):101–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Salem MZM, Mansour MM, Mohamed WS, Ali HM, Hatamleh AA. Evaluation of the antifungal activity of treated Acacia saligna wood with Paraloid B-72/TiO2 nanocomposites against the growth of Alternaria tenuissima, Trichoderma harzianum, and Fusarium culmorum. BioResources. 2017;12(4):7615–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Abu Krorra A, Noshy W, Oun A, Abu EM. Evaluation of hydroxypropyl cellulose, zinc oxide nanoparticles and nanocellulose for tracing papers consolidation. Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2021;2(1):21–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Ibrahim M, Hassib A, Omar S. Deterioration aspects of the Egyptian Faience Ushabti Statuette of the King Aspelta kept in Atfih Magazine, Egypt. Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2022;3(2):1–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Elsayed Y, Shabana Y. The effect of some essential oils on Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata infestation in archaeological oil paintings. Mediterranean Archaeol Archaeom. 2018;18(3):71–87.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Abdel-Kareem O. The long-term effect of selected conservation materials used in the treatment of museum artefacts on some properties of textiles. Polym Degrad Stab. 2005;87(1):121–30.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Ahmed HE, Kolisis FN. An investigation into the removal of starch paste adhesives from historical textiles by using the enzyme α-amylase. J Cult Herit. 2011;12(2):169–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Abdel-Kareem O, Abdel-Rahim H, Ezzat I, Essa DM. Evaluating the use of chitosan coated Ag nano-SeO2 composite in consolidation of Funeral Shroud from the Egyptian Museum of Cairo. J Cult Herit. 2015;16(4):486–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Ibrahim SF, Essa DM, Osman EM. Statistical method for determining the levelness parameters of different coloured polymeric fabrics. Int J Chem. 2011;3(3):11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Mostafa AM, Hamed SA, Afifi H, Mohamady S. A comparative study on the color change of pigments due to the consolidation of conventional spectroscopic techniques and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Appl Phys A. 2019;125:1–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. Mahmoud A, Wahba W, Marouf M, Mohamed W. Utilizing different analytical techniques to determine the composition of the paper support of historical lithographic plate from Belzoni’s Atlas. Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2022;3(1):42–54.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Rambo MK, Ferreira M. Determination of cellulose crystallinity of banana residues using near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. J Braz Chem Soc. 2015;26(7):1491–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. López-Oviedo E, Aller AI, Martin C, Castro C, Ramirez M, Pemán JM, Cantón E, Almeida C, Martín-Mazuelos E. Evaluation of disk diffusion method for determining posaconazole susceptibility of filamentous fungi: comparison with CLSI broth microdilution method. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006;50(3):1108–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. Abdel-Kareem O. Fungal deterioration of historical textiles and approaches for their control in Egypt. E-Preservationscience. 2010;7:40–7.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. Abdel-Kareem O. Evaluating the combined efficacy of polymers with fungicides for protection of museum textiles against fungal deterioration in Egypt. Pol J Microbiol. 2010;59(4):271–80.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. Kumar M, Devi P, Kumar A. Structural analysis of PVP capped silver nanoparticles synthesized at room temperature for optical, electrical and gas sensing properties. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron. 2017;28:5014–20.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Bhatia D, Mittal A, Malik DK. Antimicrobial activity of PVP coated silver nanoparticles synthesized by Lysinibacillus varians. 3 Biotech. 2016;6(2):196.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Kolar J, Štolfa A, Strlič M, Pompe M, Pihlar B, Budnar M, Simčič J, Reissland B. Historical iron gall ink containing documents—properties affecting their condition. Anal Chim Acta. 2006;555(1):167–74.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Ahmed HE, Atiya NH. Evaluation of using essential oil constituents isolated from aromatic plants against insect pests attacking historical textiles in Egyptian Museums. Egypt J Chem. 2022;65(9):139–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Abdul SB, Narendra G. Accelerated bleaching of cotton material with hydrogen peroxide. J Text Sci Eng. 2013;3(4):1000140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Ahvenainen P, Kontro I, Svedström K. Comparison of sample crystallinity determination methods by X-ray diffraction for challenging cellulose I materials. Cellulose. 2016;23:1073–86.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. Mahmoud A, Wahba W, Marouf M, Mohamed W. Analytical techniques used for condition assessment of the Historical Prints from Belzoni’s Atlas entitled “Plates illustrative of the researches and operations of G. Belzoni in Egypt.” Adv Res Conserv Sci. 2022;3(2):27–45.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Segal CJ, Martin AE, Conrad CM. An empirical method for estimating the degree of crystallinity of native cellulose using the X-ray diffractometer. Text Res J. 1959;29(10):786–94.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Kavkler K, Demsar A. Application of FTIR and Raman spectroscopy to qualitative analysis of structural changes in cellulosic fibres. Tekstilec, 2012;55(1):19–31–44.

Download references


The authors would like to thank Dr. Ahmed El Badry Abdel Aziz, Department of Botany and Microbiology, Faculty of Science, New Valley University-Egypt, for his efforts in identifying the fungal strains.


Open access funding provided by The Science, Technology & Innovation Funding Authority (STDF) in cooperation with The Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB). This research received no funding from any governmental or non-governmental agencies. Any necessary funding was made by the authors themselves.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



MA contributed to the preparation and dyeing of the experimental samples, conducting some tests and analyzes in the study, and interpreting its results. MM contributed to the interpretation of some results of the analysis of linen textiles. WS prepared the AgNPs used in the study and loaded them on the Klucel G polymer, and studied the properties of the prepared silver nanoparticles. WAW also carried out the tests to study the anti-fungal properties of the prepared AgNPs. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mahmoud Abo-Elmaaref.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abo-Elmaaref, M., Marouf, M., Mohamed, W.S. et al. Antifungal and consolidation properties of linen textiles treated with silver nanoparticles loaded on hydroxypropyl cellulose polymer. Herit Sci 11, 120 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: