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  1. Iron-gall inks are an essential element of our written cultural heritage that is at risk of a total loss due to degradation. This degradation leads to the loss of the support, particularly the cellulose-based ...

    Authors: Maria João Melo, Vanessa Otero, Paula Nabais, Natércia Teixeira, Fernando Pina, Conceição Casanova, Sara Fragoso and Sílvia O. Sequeira
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:145
  2. Analytical characterization efforts carried out in support of the conservation treatment of Mark Rothko's painting 'Black on Maroon' 1958 (Tate T01170), involving the removal of graffiti (tag) ink, are summari...

    Authors: Scott T. Wills, Bronwyn A. Ormsby, Melinda H. Keefe and Robert L. Sammler
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:143
  3. Ancient bronze is subject to complex degradation which can lead, in cases where copper chlorides are present, to a cyclic and self-sustaining degradation process commonly referred to as “bronze disease”. If le...

    Authors: Florence Liggins, Alessandra Vichi, Wei Liu, Alexander Hogg, Sotiria Kogou, Jianli Chen and Haida Liang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:142
  4. Many pieces of fine art are made of wood that has been treated with coatings. Since wood is a very hygroscopic material, the moisture content strongly influences the deformation of wooden parts. Coatings often...

    Authors: Josef Stöcklein, Daniel Konopka, Gerald Grajcarek, Oliver Tietze, Silvia Oertel, Andreas Schulze and Michael Kaliske
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:141
  5. Ion beam analysis (IBA) is an established method to determine the concentration and the distribution of elements in art and archaeological objects. However, especially for organic specimens, caution must be ta...

    Authors: Ákos Csepregi, Zita Szikszai, Piotr Targowski, Marcin Sylwestrzak, Katharina Müller, Róbert Huszánk, Anikó Angyal, Boglárka Döncző, Zsófia Kertész, Máté Szarka and Ina Reiche
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:140
  6. Max Ernst was one of the most influential artists associated with both the Dada and Surrealist movements. However, until now, only few scientific studies have been devoted to his works. This paper presents the...

    Authors: Martina Zuena, Luciano Pensabene Buemi, Luca Nodari, Grazina Subelytė, Lena Stringari, Beatrice Campanella, Giulia Lorenzetti, Vincenzo Palleschi, Patrizia Tomasin and Stefano Legnaioli
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:139
  7. The ramming technique is a traditional method used to improve the compactness of soil with impact and vibration energy. Based on the measured data of ramming force transmission and dissipation, this study reve...

    Authors: Qiangqiang Pei, Xiaoying Liu, Zhichun Hou, Guojing Zhao, Bo Zhang and Qinglin Guo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:136
  8. Mural is an important component of culture and art of Dunhuang in China. Unfortunately, these murals had been ruined or are being ruined by some diseases such as cracking, hollowing, falling off, mildew, dirt,...

    Authors: Chaohui Lv, Zilu Li, Yinghua Shen, Jinghua Li and Jin Zheng
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:135
  9. The use of calcareous nannofossils for provenance analysis is a new-old topic for cultural heritage. Several studies have already mentioned it for ceramic, but less for paintings. Preparatory layers of the pai...

    Authors: Victory Armida Janine Jaques, Jakub Trubač, Jiří Rathouský, Tomáš Cajthaml and Katarína Holcová
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:134
  10. Painted enamel holds special significance in the study of the history of Chinese ceramic and glass. Painted enamel also represents interesting evidence of cultural communication between China and European coun...

    Authors: Hanwen Liu, He Wang, Peiquan Duan, Han Gao, Rong Zhang and Liang Qu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:132
  11. Mechanical damage in oil paintings on canvas show up as cracks and loss of original paint. Several parameters can contribute to this type of degradation. These paintings have a complex layered structure, typic...

    Authors: D. S.-H. Lee, N.-S. Kim, M. Scharff, A. V. Nielsen, M. Mecklenburg, L. Fuster-López, L. Bratasz and C. K. Andersen
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:130
  12. The Road of Tang Poetry in Eastern Zhejiang is a poetic cultural route linked by Tang poetry which is the pinnacle of ancient Chinese poetry history, and is a cluster of cultural landscapes where nature and hu...

    Authors: Xuesong Xi, Xingrun An, Guangming Zhang and Shifan Liang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:129
  13. A terracotta Dancing Horse sculpture dating to the Tang Dynasty (China) and owned by the Cincinnati Art Museum (US) is the topic of the present investigation. Besides its intrinsic artistic and historical valu...

    Authors: C. Conti, M. Catrambone, C. Colombo, E. Possenti, K. M. Rectenwald, M. Realini and P. Strobbia
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:128
  14. Nero’s Temple at El-Ashmonein archaeological site, in Minia (middle of Egypt), is considered one of the most important of all temples of Nero. This temple dates back to 1520 BC–1075 BC in the New Kingdom and w...

    Authors: Abdelrhman Fahmy, Eduardo Molina-Piernas, Javier Martínez-López and Salvador Domínguez-Bella
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:125
  15. Granulation, an ancient metal processing technique mainly applied to gold, has originated from West Asia, and later appeared at many different archaeological sites across the Eurasia. The distribution of granu...

    Authors: Yong Shi, Yadi Wen, Xiaojun Li, Zhaojian Liu, Yumin Huang and Bei He
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:122
  16. Monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is a key point for preventive conservation since these species are known to impact the integrity of many artifacts including metals, papers, pigment and textiles. The probl...

    Authors: Stephane Rioual, Benoit Lescop, Julien Pellé, Gerusa de Alkmim Radicchi, Gilles Chaumat, Marie-Dominique Bruni, Johan Becker and Dominique Thierry
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:124
  17. This paper explores the characteristics and influencing factors of the spatial distribution of 889 national intangible cultural heritage sites in the Yellow River basin of China based on ArcGIS spatial analysi...

    Authors: Xin Nie, Yong Xie, Xiaoxiao Xie and Lunxing Zheng
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:121
  18. The Digital Humanities project Florence As It Was (http://​florenceasitwas.​wlu.​edu) seeks to reconstruct the architectural and decorative appearance of late Medieva...

    Authors: George R. Bent, David Pfaff, Mackenzie Brooks, Roxanne Radpour and John Delaney
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:118
  19. Gels were used to perform localized dechlorination treatments on ferrous or copper alloy archaeological objects. Agar gel (3%w) was used as a medium for the electrolyte, a 1%w KNO3 solution. Localized electrolysi...

    Authors: Clémence Fontaine, Stéphane Lemoine, Charlène Pelé-Meziani and Elodie Guilminot
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:117
  20. Bronze has been used for various applications since ancient times, and therefore, its preservation is critical. However, preserving bronze is challenging. The traditional inhibitor sealing method is limited by...

    Authors: Sheng Zhou, Zongshen Zhao, Heyi Mao, Lei Wang, Junyin Chen, Jiachang Chen and Xia Huang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:116
  21. To protect a canvas easel painting, a common conservation strategy is to add a back plate at the stretcher, creating a closed air void. This plate protects not only from dust but mainly from temperature and re...

    Authors: Santi Ferrer, Gema Campo-Francés, Josep Grau-Bové, Iris Bautista-Morenilla and Anna Nualart-Torroja
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:115
  22. Cellulose nitrate (CN) has been used in the past as support for photographic negatives and cinematographic films. This material is particularly unstable and can undergoes severe degradation due to thermal, pho...

    Authors: Marco Valente Chavez Lozano, Giorgia Sciutto, Silvia Prati and Rocco Mazzeo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:114
  23. The proposed method has been applied to a multi-phased settlement complex and pottery manufacturing centre in Ostrowite in northern Poland. In this study the radioactive isotope ratios method has been applied ...

    Authors: Magdalena Długosz-Lisiecka, Jerzy Sikora, Marcin Krystek, Dominik Płaza and Piotr Kittel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:113
  24. The generation of 3D models through Terrestrial Laser Scanning has proved to be valuable tools for the study, documentation and recreation of archaeological remains. In this context, it is described how to gen...

    Authors: Francisco Arias, Carlos Enríquez, Juan Manuel Jurado, Lidia Ortega, Antonio Romero-Manchado and Juan José Cubillas
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:112
  25. The study aimed to contribute to condition assessments of historic bridges in Izmir, Turkey and the estimation of their predictable functional lifetime after the Samos earthquake. This document is a summary of...

    Authors: Gokhan Kilic
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:111
  26. Historical colour charts provide a rich and often well-dated reference materials source for studying the chemical composition of all kinds of commercial brands of artists’ paints. This article presents the res...

    Authors: Clarimma Sessa, Christoph Steuer, Diego Quintero Balbas, Giorgia Sciutto, Silvia Prati and Heike Stege
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:109
  27. This paper presents a recent study on a Roman period marble sculpture depicting Empress Livia and the portraits of Germanicus and Drusus Minor, found at the praesidium of Asido (Medina Sidonia, Cádiz, Spain). The...

    Authors: Carlos P. Odriozola, José Beltrán Fortes, María Luisa Loza Azuaga and José María Martínez Blanes
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:108
  28. Most of papyrus documents have reached us in a very fragmentary state due to their excavation conditions and, because of the early history of papyrology, without an archaeological contextualisation. Traditiona...

    Authors: Alberto Nodar, Fernando José Pereira, Núria Ferrer and Roberto López
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:107
  29. As non-renewable cultural heritage, wall paintings play an important role in society. To reveal the trends in the scientific analysis of mural paintings, 845 relevant research articles published from 2011 to 2...

    Authors: Zhanyun Zhu, Xiuya Yao, Yaling Qin, Zhiyong Lu, Qinglin Ma, Xi Zhao and Liu Liu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:105
  30. Three-dimensional models of anatomy in wax preserved in university museums are rare artifacts of extraordinary technical complexity. In recent years, interest in them has increased among scholars who consider ...

    Authors: Emanuel Sterp Moga, Óscar Hernández-Muñoz, Javier del Río Esteban and Alicia Sánchez-Ortiz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:103
  31. The understanding of the connection between the value of an image and the value of the materials that were used to make it is limited, especially for stained-glass windows. However, such information can bring-...

    Authors: Mathilde Patin, Karin Nys, Hugo Thienpont and Wendy Meulebroeck
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:106
  32. A database was constructed of 134 reference plastic samples and their Raman spectra to aid in the rapid and accurate identification of the polymer composition of mid-twentieth century plastic purses and their ...

    Authors: Mary N. Boyden, Elyse M. Kleist, Courtney K. Asztalos and Timothy M. Korter
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:101
  33. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been used in numerous paintings since its creation in the early 1920s. However, due to this relatively recent adoption by the art world, we have limited knowledge about the nature and ...

    Authors: Thomas Schmitt, Francesca Rosi, Edoardo Mosconi, Ken Shull, Simona Fantacci, Costanza Miliani and Kimberly Gray
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:99
  34. The structure of five rare filigree spheres from a seventeenth century shipwreck was examined in order to unravel their condition, manufacturing process and function. This study focuses on the application of n...

    Authors: Janneke van der Stok-Nienhuis, Tonny Beentjes, Dominique Ngan-Tillard, Lambert van Eijck, Ineke Joosten and Maarten R. van Bommel
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:98
  35. The role of 3D virtual reconstruction of lost heritage artefacts is acquiring ever-greater importance, as a support for archaeological research and art history studies, as well as a vehicle for the cultural an...

    Authors: Francesco Gherardini and Simone Sirocchi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:96
  36. Base glasses from the eastern Mediterranean which circulated in Rome between the fifth and tenth centuries bear witness to the persistence of long-distance trade after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. LA-...

    Authors: Cristina Boschetti, Jan Kindberg Jacobsen, Claudio Parisi Presicce, Rubina Raja, Nadine Schibille and Massimo Vitti
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:95

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