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  1. Oracle bone inscriptions (OBIs) are the earliest Chinese characters and reserve abundant historical information. OBIs are detected by locating their positions in digital images. This has been a foundational ta...

    Authors: Xinran Fu, Rixin Zhou, Xi Yang and Chuntao Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:107
  2. Alegoría de la construcción and Alegoría del trabajo were the first mural paintings commissioned to Saturnino Herrán (1887–1918), and they occupied a significant place in one of the most important schools in M...

    Authors: Nathael Cano, Oscar G. de Lucio, Miguel Pérez, Alejandro Mitrani, Edgar Casanova and José Luis Ruvalcaba Sil
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:106
  3. Deterioration development is a recognized worldwide threat to rock carvings, especially in humid regions of southern China. Cultural heritage managers thus require precise identification of different deteriora...

    Authors: Chiwei Chen, Haiqing Yang, Xingyue Li, Gang Zhao and Jianghua Ni
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:105
  4. Soot stain from diverse sources is the most common stain that stains historical paper documents found in libraries, museums, and storage facilities. It is believed to be one of the types of deterioration that ...

    Authors: Mostafa Abdel-Hamied, Haidi Mahmoud Hassan, Yassmine Adel Mohamed, Mai Emad Moustafa Ismail, Yara Farid, Hager Mohamed, Sameh H. Ismail, Mohamed Z. M. Salem and Rushdya Rabee Ali Hassan
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:104
  5. The fracture toughness in opening mode GIc for selected oil paints from Mecklenburg's Paint Reference Collection after approximately 30 years of natural ageing was determined using the procedure adopted from the ...

    Authors: Arkadiusz Janas, Nefeli Avgerou, Maria N. Charalambides, Laura Fuster-López and Łukasz Bratasz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:103
  6. The paper presents a study on corrosion prediction for preventive aeronautical heritage protection, considering the aeronautical heritage stored or exhibited in an aviation museum. For the purpose of the study...

    Authors: Michal Kuchař, Cyril Oswald, Jaromír Fišer, Miroslav Khol, Goran Simeunović, Tomáš Vyhlídal, Elodie Guilminot and Jane Echinard
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:102
  7. Currently, the use of digital technology for the protection and research of cultural heritage has become a trend in this field. Rockeries in Chinese classical gardens have become an important cultural heritage...

    Authors: Xinchen Li, Xiaoxiao He, Yuqing Xiao, Shizhen Jia and Ke Qin
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:101
  8. Defensive capability is one of the essential attributes of traditional military settlements. In the Ming dynasty, coastal Wei fort was the one of the most functionally complex and wide-ranging fortifications i...

    Authors: Jiayin Zhou, Yilin Jiang, Jiayi Liu, Lifeng Tan and Lingxin Meng
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:100
  9. The city centre of Khiva (Uzbekistan), called Itchan Kala, is an architectural complex included in the UNESCO list of tangible cultural heritage. One of the historic buildings in it is the Juma Mosque. It has ...

    Authors: Marek Milosz, Jacek Kęsik and Utkir Abdullaev
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:99
  10. Salt crystallization is one of the most important factors causing weathering in grottoes. Cumulative crystallization of salts causes damage such as flaking and peeling of the rocks and accelerates the weatheri...

    Authors: Yumeng Sheng, Ping Liu, Wentao Shi, Bo Sun, Ningbo Peng, Dading Jiao and Changqing Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:98
  11. The Ming Great Wall Military Defense System is the most complete ancient military cultural heritage in China, which is of great significance to the study of China’s ancient military defense mechanism and patte...

    Authors: Xixuan Fan, Zhen Wang and Shifen Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:97
  12. The heritage value of the historic urban countryside, as a remnant in the transition between the urban boundary and the natural environment, is a consequence of the spatial and temporal evolution of the city. ...

    Authors: Xufang Li, Xiangpin Zhou, Feifan Weng, Fanzhuo Ding, Yijing Wu and Zhenxin Yi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:96
  13. Carl Wilhelm Scheele's notorious toxic pigment, commonly referred to as “Scheele's green” often resulted in a mixture of products with unknown chemical composition. Positive identification of the pigment has b...

    Authors: Leonardo Pantoja Munoz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:94
  14. Since the introduction of the Oddy test in 1973, many museums and cultural institutions have put the method in use, developing their own versions and protocols. Currently the 3-in-1 version, temperature at 60 ...

    Authors: Ivan Díaz, Alba Alvarez-Martin, Josep Grau-Bové, Sara Norrehed, Barbara Salvadori, Ida Kraševec, Daniel Duran-Romero and Emilio Cano
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:95
  15. Tibetan Buddhism has an inseparable connection with the spatial characteristics, development process, and human-natural environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This paper takes monasteries as carriers of Tibetan B...

    Authors: Subin Fang, Yaolong Zhao, Xinxin Liu and Yao Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:93
  16. This research focuses on the study of pigment-medium interactions in the film forming, ageing and degradation mechanisms of modern white oil paints observed in the Neoplasticist painting Composition dans le cône ...

    Authors: Francesca Caterina Izzo, Margherita Gnemmi, Miguel Ángel Herrero-Cortell, Ana María García-Castillo, María Teresa Martínez-López and Laura Fuster-López
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:92
  17. Superficial weathering in the form of granular disaggregation, powdering and flaking on stone surface is one of the most serious damages to stone heritages, since the surface carries most of the artistic, hist...

    Authors: Xuemei Wang, Hongjie Luo, Haidong Yu, Can Xiong, Hui Dai, Bo Rong and Xiao Huang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:91
  18. Large amount of ivory was excavated from Sanxingdui site which was waterlogged, severely degraded and in urgent need for conservation. There has been much effort for the conservation of waterlogged ivory by sc...

    Authors: Yusong Liu, Qingmeng Xu, Sifan Li, Zhenbin Xie, Qiang Li, Hongjie Luo and Shidong Ji
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:90
  19. Panel paintings are multi-layer structures composed of humidity-sensitive materials. Preventing or limiting stresses in these structures, generated by the loss or gain of moisture, requires an understanding of...

    Authors: Sergii Antropov and Łukasz Bratasz
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:89
  20. The bronze mou was an important artifact commonly used in the Ba-Shu region (now in Chongqing and Sichuan Province) during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Han Dynasty. Although extensive archaeological st...

    Authors: Liwei Tan, Xiaopan Fan, Huiyun Rao, Hui Zhang and Yimin Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:88
  21. This paper presents the use of X-ray computed tomography and X-ray fluorescence in the analysis and expert research of the seventeenth century printed book "Eukhologīon albo Molitoslov, ili Trebnik" from Kiev....

    Authors: Daniel Vavřík, Andrei Kazanskii, Jitka Neoralová, Rita Lyons Kindlerová, Dana Novotná, Petra Vávrová, Ivana Kumpová, Michal Vopálenský and Tomáš Kyncl
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:87
  22. Prehistoric rock carvings are one of Scotland’s most enigmatic and poorly understood monument types. This article discusses the pioneering approach used by Scotland’s Rock Art Project to enhance understanding ...

    Authors: Tertia Barnett, Joana Valdez-Tullett, Linda Marie Bjerketvedt, Frederick Alexander-Reid, Maya Hoole, Stuart Jeffrey and Guillaume Robin
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:86
  23. The richly decorative and imaginative works by French artist Séraphine Louis (1864–1942) have long elicited fascination, and her working methods have often eluded art historians and conservators alike. Working...

    Authors: Abed Haddad, Ken Sutherland, Silvia A. Centeno, Gwénaëlle M. Kavich, Maria Kokkori, Caroline Hoover, Diana Hartman-Drumm, Nathalie Balcar and Gilles Barabant
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:85
  24. This research delves into the investigation of a ceramic sample discovered in the southern sector of the Durrës Amphitheatre, with a primary focus on comprehending its composition, origin, and cultural importa...

    Authors: Chiara Casolino, Francesca Falcone, Maria Grazia Perna, Elvana Metalla, Gianluigi Rosatelli, Francesco Stoppa and Sonia Antonelli
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:84
  25. The paper analyses the glaze of a ceramic sherd found in the southern sector of the Durres amphitheatre. Specifically, the sherd was found in a layer datable to the late 12th to early 13th century, which can b...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Perna, Francesca Falcone, Chiara Casolino, Elvana Metalla, Gianluigi Rosatelli, Sonia Antonelli and Francesco Stoppa
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:82
  26. The Great Wall during the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) was the most prominent engineering volume and the most perfect military defense structure in the history of China. By combining traditional historical textual...

    Authors: Yang Yang, Yukun Zhang and Yan Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:81

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2024 12:144

  27. The Xinjiang unearthed brocade as a significant cultural heritage records the historical and cultural information of diverse ethnic groups, and it also influences cultural product development. However, the exi...

    Authors: Yu Zhao, Zhou Li, Wenliang Li and Junling Liu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:80
  28. The blue and white porcelain produced in Jingdezhen during China’s Yuan Dynasty is an outstanding cultural heritage of ceramic art that has attracted wide attention for its identification. However, the traditi...

    Authors: Jinwei Li, Yifei Yang, Dongmian Zou, Lin Wu, Qiang Wu, Ziwei Lin and Qijiang Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:79
  29. On the North Loess Plateau of China, city civilization, social complexity, and stratification emerged during the Longshan period (3000-2000BCE). Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis and archae...

    Authors: Jianxin Cui
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:78
  30. Study on export paintings has gradually shifted from artistic form to cultural connotation, with an emphasis on cross-cultural communication. Although the economic and social dimensions of their artistic value...

    Authors: Jinghui Ao, Ziying Ye, Weicong Li and Shanshan Ji
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:77
  31. The Gangjin Celadon Kiln, after its excavation in 1982, was relocated and restored in 1987 and subjected to primary conservation treatment in 2007. However, many problems such as soil disintegration and cavita...

    Authors: Young Hoon Jo, Young Hwan Kim and Hae Soon Lee
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:76
  32. The study aims at investigating the use of reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) in the Visible (Vis) and Near Infrared (NIR) range in combination with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to address the...

    Authors: Costanza Cucci, Tommaso Guidi, Marcello Picollo, Lorenzo Stefani, Lorenzo Python, Fabrizio Argenti and Andrea Barucci
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:75
  33. Ancient Chinese architecture drawing is a unique form of ancient Chinese art. Porcine blood hydrogels are distinctive ingredients used to prepare the composite material of the substrate layer for architecture ...

    Authors: Cong Cheng, Yeting Zhu, Jingyi Zhang, Wei Li, Gele Teri, Lizhen Zheng and Daodao Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:74
  34. A group of copper-based objects excavated at Deh Dumen cemetery, in south-western Iran, was  studied and analysed to examine the long-term corrosion morphology and mechanism in the soil burial environment. For...

    Authors: Omid Oudbashi, Reza Naseri and Parnia Asadi Hasanvand
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:73
  35. In computer artificial intelligence, there is great potential in research on the protection of Suzhou's traditional gardens, a world cultural heritage site. As a special material in Suzhou's traditional garden...

    Authors: Lina Yan, Yile Chen, Liang Zheng and Yi Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:72
  36. Human–computer interaction, Artificial Intelligence, and the multilingualism of digital culture open up unexpected scenarios in the contemporary design of cultural spaces with the creation of artifacts in whic...

    Authors: Sonia Capece, Camelia Chivăran, Giovanna Giugliano, Elena Laudante, Maria Laura Nappi and Mario Buono
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:71
  37. At the Treblinka extermination and forced labor camp only a few SS soldiers and around a hundred watchmen kept guard over thousands of prisoners. Despite their lower rank in the Nazi hierarchy than SS soldiers...

    Authors: Joanna Drath, Joanna Jarzęcka-Stąporek, Julia Zacharczuk, Dagmara Lisman, Sandra Cytacka, Maria Szargut, Ozgur Bulut, Kate Spradley, Marek E. Jasinski, Mirosław Parafiniuk and Andrzej Ossowski
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:69
  38. A refutation of the claims by Scott Stripling et al. regarding the epigraphic analysis and paleographic contents of the folded lead object discovered on Mt. Ebal in 2019 during the wet-sifting of dump piles fr...

    Authors: Mark S. Haughwout
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:70

    The original article was published in Heritage Science 2023 11:105

  39. Western cities have been confronted with the challenges of 'urban shrinkage' as changes in economic and production models have caused population migrations. China, in its recent history, has experienced rapid ...

    Authors: Yuzhao Zhang, Shanshan Chen and Mark A. Hoistad
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:67
  40. Chinese classical gardens, an essential part of World Cultural Heritage, are well exemplified by Xishu Garden as a notable branch of this tradition. This research focuses on the San Su Shrine—a quintessential ...

    Authors: Li Guo, Wenjing Ma, Xueqian Gong, Deshun Zhang, Zhigao Zhai and Mengjia Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:66
  41. This study focuses on the application of deep learning for transforming semantic point clouds into semantic Building Information Models (BIM) to create a Heritage Digital Twin, centering on Taoping Village, a ...

    Authors: Xiang Pan, Qing Lin, Siyi Ye, Li Li, Li Guo and Brendan Harmon
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:65
  42. The Wujiafentou site is located at the heart of the Youziling (5900–5500 cal BP) and Shijiahe (4500–4200 cal BP) cultures in the Handong region, a core area to understand the relationship among economic networ...

    Authors: Zichen Xie, Ying Hu, Siwei Shan, Qin-Qin Lü, Feiyong Yuan and Tao Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:64
  43. In recent times, there has been a proactive effort by various institutions and organizations to preserve historic manuscripts as repositories of traditional knowledge and cultural heritage. Leveraging digital ...

    Authors: J. Jayanthi and P. Uma Maheswari
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:63
  44. The “Eight Scenic Views Paintings” represent crucial visual materials for investigating the history of cultural landscapes. However, traditional methods of interpreting materials struggle to discern the inhere...

    Authors: Wenzheng Zhang, Yiwei Wang, Lin Fu and Yike Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:62

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