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  1. Chinese Painting and Calligraphy (ChP&C) holds significant cultural value, representing integral aspects of both Chinese culture and global art. A considerable amount of ChP&C works are dispersed worldwide. Wi...

    Authors: Jing Wan, Hao Zhang, Jun Zou, Ao Zou, Yubin Chen, Qingyang Zeng, Xinrong Li and Qiya Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:159
  2. The degradation of earthen sites due to natural and human factors has become a pressing issue, necessitating urgent protection measures. In this context, accurate assessment of the vulnerability of earthen sit...

    Authors: Ningbo Peng, Chaokai Zhang, Ye Zhu, Yue Zhang, Bo Sun, Fengrui Wang, Jizhong Huang and Tong Wu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:161
  3. In our study, we employed an interdisciplinary approach to study the diverse parts of the Missale Nidrosiense, published in 1519. Our aim was a thorough investigation of the materials used and the manufacturing m...

    Authors: Chiara Palandri, Tuuli Kasso, Aoife Daly, Nina Hesselberg-Wang, Jiří Vnouček, Jan Bill, Heidi Debreczeny Wilkinson, Ljiljana Puskar, Hartmut Kutzke, Sarah Fiddyment and Matthew J. Collins
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:158
  4. The effects of bomb impacts, including the explosive force and combustion associated with these impacts, are preserved in only a few cities across the UK. In particular, World War Two (WWII) has left scars acr...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Wang, Lisa Mol, Maurice Tucker, Tom Blenkinsop, Oscar Gilbert and Oliver Campbell
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:157
  5. Heritage buildings represent history and act as vessels of human civilisation. The significance of these architectural phenomena increases as society increases, which renders their preservation and ethical use...

    Authors: Sha Liu and Mohd Jaki Bin Mamat
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:153
  6. This paper presents the current state of conservation of historic roof churches located in the Żuławy of Gdańsk (Poland). It also describes the architecture of these temples, the region itself and old carpentr...

    Authors: Tomasz Zybała, Monika Zielińska, Magdalena Rucka, Jarosław Przewłócki and Karol Grębowski
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:156
  7. In museums, silk cultural relics are highly sensitive to light. However, lighting is inevitable due to the exhibition needs, despite any light would pose irreversible damage to silk. Although the solution of e...

    Authors: Yuxuan Gong, Guangzhao Zhou, Chengquan Qiao and Yongkang Pan
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:151
  8. Salt efflorescence is one of the critical problems for the preservation of immovable silicate relics. Salt efflorescence mainly comes from continuous cycles of crystallization/dissolution or hydration/dehydrat...

    Authors: Qiang Li, Ge Gao, Longkang Yang, Xiao Huang and Hongjie Luo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:150
  9. Removing unwanted materials, such as organic coatings and soil, from the cultural relic surface is a complex and significant task in the field of cultural heritage conservation. Microemulsion-loaded gel can ef...

    Authors: Jinmeng Zhu, Jiapeng Wang, Jia Wang, Jinghan Ding, Xichen Zhao, Wenqiang Dong, Zhiyong Lu and Xuanhua Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:149
  10. Paper-based artifacts hold significant cultural and social values. However, paper is intrinsically fragile to microorganisms, such as mold, due to its cellulose composition, which can serve as a microorganisms...

    Authors: Chenshu Liu, Songbin Ben, Chongwen Liu, Xianchao Li, Qingxia Meng, Yilin Hao, Qian Jiao and Pinyi Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:148
  11. The study assessed the uniformity of the metallurgical process carried out during the period of Roman influence in Poland. The age of the investigated material was confirmed based on an analysis of the 12C/14C is...

    Authors: Krzysztof Kupczak, Rafał Warchulski, Aleksandra Gawęda and Jan Janiec
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:147
  12. Reconstructing ancient transportation networks is critical to studying past human mobility patterns. China’s Haidai region was a thriving political and economic hub during the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. We us...

    Authors: Heng Yong, Xin Jia, Sijin Li, Lin Yang, Harry F. Lee and Guoan Tang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:145
  13. The design and implementation of virtual museums have evolved over decades, broadening the scope of traditional museum exhibitions and serving as an effective complement to physical museums. However, virtual v...

    Authors: Feng Tian, Keying Li, Xin Huang, Xiaoyue Zhang, Ning Wang, Ying Song, Qiaolian Zhu and Yuzhi Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:146
  14. Traditional Chinese villages act as the essential carriers of China’s rural heritage. Such villages are considered to retain living practices of intangible heritage through know-how, artistic and folk customs,...

    Authors: Han Zhang, Bruno Andrade, Xiaoqiong Wang, Ibrahim Aburabee and Sinan Yuan
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:141
  15. Ancient Chinese bronzes, particularly bronze mirrors, often develop a fatty, oily, or greasy film on their surface, known as patina. This film can appear silvery, green, or black. Bronze mirror samples from th...

    Authors: Yunpeng Wang, Shasha Long, Xuening Wang, Fangzhi Liu and Qinglin Ma
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:136
  16. We present a study into early modern English production of blue verditer, an early synthetic copper-based blue pigment chemically analogous to azurite. Verditers have been identified in numerous wall and easel...

    Authors: Ellen H. Purdy, Sarah Critchley, Andrea Kirkham and Michael Casford
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:138
  17. With the rapid development of machine learning technology, it has become possible to automatically identify cultural heritage elements in traditional buildings. This research aimed to develop a machine learnin...

    Authors: Yanyu Li, Mingyi Zhao, Jingyi Mao, Yile Chen, Liang Zheng and Lina Yan
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:137
  18. The Sukhothai Historical Park, designated as a world heritage site in Thailand, encompasses the remnants of the Sukhothai Kingdom and serves as a valuable locus for geological and geoarchaeological investigati...

    Authors: Vimoltip Singtuen, Supaporn Jansamut, Nucharee Pongsaisri and Burapha Phajuy
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:134
  19. The image classification task of porcelain fragments is of great significance for the digital preservation of cultural heritage. However, common issues are encountered in the image processing of porcelain frag...

    Authors: Ruoxue Li, Guohua Geng, Xizhi Wang, Yulin Qin, Yangyang Liu, Pengbo Zhou and Haibo Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:133
  20. Chinese classical gardens are a significant cultural heritage in the history of world gardening, with their central architectural principle of "scenes changing as steps move" (步移景异) embodying traditional Chine...

    Authors: Yujia Chen, Yang Gu, Yaxin Liu and Lei Cao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:131
  21. Stereomicroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM–EDS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance probe (FTIR-ATR), High Performance Liquid Chro...

    Authors: Christina Margariti, Gabriela Sava, Ina Vanden Berghe and Daphne Filiou
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:132
  22. This paper presents the results of the first X-ray fluorescence (XRF) investigation conducted on three late medieval chalices associated with Ireland: the Ó Learghusa chalice, auctioned as medieval Irish in 20...

    Authors: Veronica Biolcati, Richard Keyes McDonnell, Anna Grace Hoffman, Pádraig Ó Macháin, Małgorzata Krasnodębska-D’Aughton and Daniela Iacopino
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:130
  23. The benefits provided by ecological assets play a crucial role in enhancing human well-being. However, there is a scarcity of viable methods for assessing their status. This study is grounded in Land Use and L...

    Authors: Qiangqiang Liu, Jiancheng Wang, Kangning Xiong, Lanqiang Gong, Yue Chen, Jianzai Yang, Hua Xiao and Jie Bai
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:129
  24. In the context of digitalizing cultural heritage, HBIM is garnering increasing attention from heritage conservationists for its advantages. In conservation practices for cultural heritage, expressing regional ...

    Authors: Lingchen Zhuo, Jiahao Zhang and Xinyu Hong
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:128
  25. Scientific analysis of excavated pottery reveals critical archaeological insights, yet data on Han Dynasty pottery remains limited. This study focuses on pottery artifacts excavated from the Daqu burial site i...

    Authors: Xiang He, Jingqi Wen, Zhang He, InHee Go, Naitao Liu and Hong Guo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:126
  26. The relationship between social factors and the formation of exported mug designs is blurred. This study addresses how they influence material design. Based on a quantitative typological analysis, this paper i...

    Authors: Jinghui Ao, Zilin Xu, Weicong Li, Shanshan Ji and Ran Qiu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:125
  27. Three methods can be used to evaluate the colour used on architectural heritage: manual evaluation, instrumental measurement, and process restoration. Optical instruments that can obtain relatively accurate ch...

    Authors: Jie Shao, Luke Li, Yutong Jiang, Xin Liu and Hong Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:124
  28. Restoring the murals' various kinds of deteriorations is urgently necessary given the growing awareness of the need to protect cultural relics. Virtual restoration starts with an accurate extraction of deterio...

    Authors: Kezhen Qiao, Miaole Hou, Shuqiang Lyu and Lihong Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:123
  29. The rise in sea levels, driven by global climate change, poses a significant threat to cultural heritage in coastal regions. Traditional risk assessment methods, focusing on direct inundation, often fail to co...

    Authors: Zihua Chen, Qian Gao, Xiaowei Li, Xiaohui Yang and Zhenbo Wang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:121
  30. Over recent decades, various heritage institutions have utilized a multitude of materials to reinforce the painted layers of ancient Chinese wooden architecture. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive eva...

    Authors: Kezhu Han, Gele Teri, Cong Cheng, Yuxiao Tian, Dan Huang, Mantang Ge, Peng Fu, Yujia Luo and Yuhu Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:122
  31. Scientifically validating the value of rural heritage and exploring construction wisdom has emerged as a significant challenge in the study of rural settlements worldwide. Rural heritage shows significant diff...

    Authors: Wei Xiong, Licheng Wang, Mengyuan Tu, Xiang Li, Siwei Jiang and Qinglin Liu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:120
  32. Nanjing Yunjin, a traditional Chinese silk weaving craft, is celebrated globally for its unique local characteristics and exquisite workmanship, forming an integral part of the world's intangible cultural heri...

    Authors: Liang Xu, Lu Lu, Minglu Liu, Chengxuan Song and Lizhen Wu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:118
  33. As an authoritative institution in cultural heritage conservation, ICOMOS plays a crucial role in guiding local communities’ participation in heritage conservation. However, its scattered and vague description...

    Authors: Yishu Xu, Yuexing Tang and Luchen Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:116
  34. Traditional villages hold a vital place in Chinese vernacular built heritage continuation with their colors being a significant constituent of the built environment. While digital technology has advanced our u...

    Authors: Gangyi Tan, Zhanxiang Chen, Miao Xue and Yanfei Jia
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:115
  35. The cultural heritage sector includes a significant variety and complexity of data and information. Making this accessible today represents one of the main aims of cultural institutes. The connections between ...

    Authors: Maria Laura Nappi, Mario Buono, Camelia Chivăran and Rosa Maria Giusto
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:112
  36. Traditional settlements are vital carriers of Chinese history and culture, reflecting the direct and original needs of generations. However, the modernization of settlements will inevitably disrupt the spontan...

    Authors: Peng Peng, Yating Fu, Xiangyun Zhou, Shaopu Wu, Jiajie Zhao and Yuechen Zhang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2024 12:109

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