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  1. A total of 7 complementary methods have been applied to investigate unique pre-Mongolian 12th century wall paintings from the St. George Cathedral of the Yuriev Monastery in Veliky Novgorod, Russia. Both archa...

    Authors: O. S. Philippova, A. Yu. Dmitriev, T. J. Tsarevskaya and S. O. Dmitrieva
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:49
  2. Characterization of ancient food remains could reflect how people exploited biological resources and interacted with different cultures in antiquity. In this study, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTI...

    Authors: Meng Ren, Renfang Wang and Yimin Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:46
  3. A woman’s crown made of fine gilt bronze with refined glass inlay work was excavated from a Sui-Tang tomb called Kunlun M2 in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China. Very few female crowns and crown ornaments have bee...

    Authors: Jingnan Du, Tonia Eckfeld, Junchang Yang, Fengrui Jiang, Quanmin Zhang and Yanbing Shao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:45
  4. This paper presents the pigment characterization in six impressionist and post-impressionist paintings by three leading Puerto Rican artists: Francisco Oller (1833–1917), José Cuchí y Arnau (1857–1925), and Ra...

    Authors: Marc Vermeulen, Annette S. Ortiz Miranda, Diego Tamburini, Sol E. Rivera Delgado and Marc Walton
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:44
  5. The historical (1835–2020) deposition of major air pollutants (SO2, NOx, O3 and PM2.5) indoors, as represented by the monumental Edvard Munch paintings (c. 220 m2) installed in 1916 in the Oslo University Aula in...

    Authors: Terje Grøntoft and Tine Frøysaker
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:43
  6. Located in Pujiang, Chengdu, China, more than four hundred artifacts were unearthed during the excavation of the Warring States (the Warring States period lasts from 475 to 221 BC) ship-shaped graves in 2016. ...

    Authors: Liu Liu, Qing Zhong, Luman Jiang, Pei Li, Lin Xiao, Yangmin Gong, Zhanyun Zhu and Junchang Yang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:36

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2022 10:69

  7. The striking realism of the life-sized ceramic terracotta warriors has been attracting the interest of the public and archaeologists since they were discovered from the mausoleum complex of the first Chinese E...

    Authors: Yungang Hu, Desheng Lan, Jingyang Wang, Miaole Hou, Songnian Li, Xiuzhen Li and Lei Zhu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:40
  8. A previous preliminary study of 15th-century Venetian manuscript fragments by the Master of the Murano Gradual identified the presence of cobalt in many ultramarine blue areas, suggesting the presence of smalt...

    Authors: Paola Ricciardi, Kathryn A. Dooley, Douglas MacLennan, Giulia Bertolotti, Francesca Gabrieli, Catherine Schmidt Patterson and John K. Delaney
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:38
  9. This study, presented in a pair of articles, defines a comprehensive methodological approach to the reconstruction of a traditional masonry-timber mansion building constructed in the 1880s of the Turkish house...

    Authors: Cemil Akcay, Nail Mahir Korkmaz and Baris Sayin
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:34
  10. Over the years, the methodologies used for graphic representation in archaeology have evolved. The substantial change in representation was achieved with the use of computer software. Currently, 3D sketch scan...

    Authors: Irene Cáceres-Criado, Diego Francisco García-Molina, Francisco-Javier Mesas-Carrascosa and Paula Triviño-Tarradas
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:33
  11. In this contribution a non-destructive approach has been used aiming at investigating the chemical composition of 35 ceramic items belonging to the collections of the Regional Aeolian Museum “Luigi Bernabò Bre...

    Authors: Cristina M. Belfiore, Maria A. Mastelloni, Germana Barone and Paolo Mazzoleni
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:32
  12. Cultural heritage (CH) reflects on the history of a society and its traditions and it is treated as the nation’s memory and identity. Digitizing and web, beside its benefits, brought some challenges in dissemi...

    Authors: Babak Ranjgar, Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki, Maryam Shakeri and Soo-Mi Choi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:13
  13. The present study aimed to identify pigments used in writing and decorating a Qur'an manuscript related to the early years of the Qajar era, a royal dynasty ruling over Iran from 1789 to 1925. The pigments wer...

    Authors: Alireza Koochakzaei, Samane Alizadeh Gharetapeh and Behrooz Jelodarian Bidgoli
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:30
  14. Monochrome drawn beads were widely circulated in South and Southeast Asia as early as the second century BC. This article aims to identify the glass beads unearthed from different sites in China and discuss th...

    Authors: Qian Ma, A. Mark Pollard, Yifan Yu, Zhuanjie Li, Linling Liao, Long Wang, Man Li, Luwu Cai, Li Ping and Rui Wen
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:29
  15. The increasing demand for applying modified inert atmosphere systems for insect eradication in museums has led to the desire for lower-cost consumable materials, particularly laminated plastic films. An ultra-...

    Authors: Manar M. Elkhial and Nesrin M. N. El Hadidi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:28
  16. Crowdsourced images hold information could potentially be used to remotely monitor heritage sites, and reduce human and capital resources devoted to on-site inspections. This article proposes a combination of ...

    Authors: Ziwen Liu, Rosie Brigham, Emily Rosemary Long, Lyn Wilson, Adam Frost, Scott Allan Orr and Josep Grau-Bové
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:27
  17. Religious schools are institutions for teaching Islamic sciences. Nowadays, many religious schools in Tehran, which were built during the Qajar period, have been destroyed due to natural erosion and urban expa...

    Authors: Mohammad Sadegh Taher Tolou Del, Bahram Saleh Sedghpour and Sina Kamali Tabrizi
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:26
  18. Sandstone grottoes, with their elaborate carvings and decorations, hold high historic, artistic and scientific values and therefore constitute an important part of China’s stone cultural heritage. Although cap...

    Authors: Yue Zhang, Yunmeng Zhang and Jizhong Huang
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:25
  19. Flood control initiated Chinese civilization. Chinese civilization has a long history, and Chinese ancestors invented “aquatic engineering technology” for flood control and water management, including the Fasc...

    Authors: Bingjie Mai, Naiming Liu, JiaoJiao Liu, Dan Liu, Jin Li, Juanli Wang, Aidong Chen, Jing Cao and Yuhu Li
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:24
  20. Reconstructions were used as a tool to investigate the use of charcoal and black stone as underdrawing materials in sixteenth century panel paintings with white or off-white preparatory layers. Research was ba...

    Authors: H. P. Melo, Sara Valadas, António João Cruz and António Candeias
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:23
  21. World cultural landscape heritage (WCLH), recognized as a combination of cultural relics and natural landscapes with outstanding significance and universal value, is unique in terms of its differentiation from...

    Authors: Jiami Zhou, Wenhui Wang, Jianqin Zhou, Zhuting Zhang, Zixian Lu and Zhiqiang Gong
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:22
  22. Archaeological silver artifacts are often found to be brittle because of long-term corrosion. However, the restoration of brittle archaeological silver artifacts by thermal treatment has never been quantitativ...

    Authors: Shengyu Liu, Zhuopeng Li, Yihang Zhou, Ruixuan Li, Zhenda Xie, Chudong Liu, Gang Hu and Dongbo Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:21
  23. This study applied various scientific analyses to one fragment of paper and three pigments excavated from earthenware found in the Hoeamsa Temple site at Yangju, Korea, which is believed to have been built in ...

    Authors: InHee Go, SeongWoo Mun, JangJon Lee and HyeYoung Jeong
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:20

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2022 10:47

  24. The Guangyuan Thousand-Buddha grotto is of great value in researching the spread of Buddhism in China. To explore a scientific deterioration degree evaluation method, the authors selected 11 grottos from the m...

    Authors: Xue Yao and Fan Zhao
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:19
  25. The present study reports a series of interdisciplinary archaeometrical analyses of objects found in the Christmas Cave, which was discovered by John Allegro and his team in 1960 on the West Bank of the Dead S...

    Authors: Kaare Lund Rasmussen, Johannes van der Plicht, Ilaria Degano, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini, Guillermo de la Fuente, Thomas Delbey, Amos Frumkin, Uri Davidovich, Roi Porat, Orit Shamir, Naama Sukenik, Greg Doudna, Joan Taylor and Mladen Popović
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:18
  26. Heritage science is an inherently practice-oriented field that aims to support our understanding, and conservation, of heritage. Research is commonly undertaken using laboratory or field-based methodologies, b...

    Authors: Jenny Richards and Peter Brimblecombe
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:17
  27. Liu Kang (1911–2004) was renowned Singapore artist trained in Shanghai and Paris, and known for his contributions to the Nanyang style—an art movement practised by migrant Chinese painters in Singapore between...

    Authors: Damian Lizun, Teresa Kurkiewicz, Mateusz Mądry and Bogusław Szczupak
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:16
  28. The high hygroscopicity and heterogeneity of parchment make it particularly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions. The proper housing of a historical parchment, including mounting should mitigate th...

    Authors: Athanasia Papanikolaou, Dorota Dzik-Kruszelnicka and Malgorzata Kujawinska
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:15
  29. In recent years, 3D technology has been widely used in various aspects of the entire workflow of conservation–restoration. However, in the majority of cases, researchers have mainly relied on 3D technologies t...

    Authors: Shengyu Liu, Yuanwei Tu, Xin Wang, Bo Qin, Zhenda Xie, Yeliang Zhang, Hai Zhang and Dongbo Hu
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:14
  30. Traditional methods for ancient mural segmentation have drawbacks, including fuzzy target boundaries and low efficiency. Targeting these problems, this study proposes a pyramid scene parsing MobileNetV2 networ...

    Authors: Jianfang Cao, Xiaodong Tian, Zhiqiang Chen, Leelavathi Rajamanickam and Yiming Jia
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:11
  31. Cultural heritage building information models (HBIMs) incorporate specific geometric and semantic data that are mandatory for supporting the workflows and decision making during a heritage study. The Industry ...

    Authors: Laurens Jozef Nicolaas Oostwegel, Štefan Jaud, Sergej Muhič and Katja Malovrh Rebec
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:10
  32. Imaging spectroscopy (IS) is an important tool in the comprehensive technical analysis required of archaeological paintings. The complexity of pigment mixtures, diverse artistic practices and painting technolo...

    Authors: Roxanne Radpour, Glenn A. Gates, Ioanna Kakoulli and John K. Delaney
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:8
  33. Previous studies of ancient jade using portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) have mostly focused on mineral identification, alteration status and provenance determination. It is usually used as an auxiliary instr...

    Authors: Dian Chen, Yimin Yang, Baotong Qiao, Jingpu Li and Wugan Luo
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:1
  34. Although the topic is rarely addressed in literature, a significant number of baroque paintings exhibit dark, halo-like shapes around the contours of the dramatis personae. Close examination of both finished a...

    Authors: Kirsten Derks, Geert Van der Snickt, Stijn Legrand, Katlijne Van der Stighelen and Koen Janssens
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:5
  35. In this study we used an analytical approach based on complementary techniques that targets all structural levels of collagen in leather to investigate how vegetable-tanned leather deteriorates during soil bur...

    Authors: Gabriela Vyskočilová, Cristina Carşote, Richard Ševčík and Elena Badea
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:7
  36. Design for poverty alleviation (DPA) is becoming an active promoter and effective practice form of rural social innovation. This study aims to explore the sustainable, collaborative design path of rural povert...

    Authors: Wenjia Li, Ziwei Li and Huaiyun Kou
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:2
  37. Understanding the degradation of plastic materials is a big challenge for curators, conservators and conservation scientists in museums worldwide aiming to preserve their collections due to the variety of form...

    Authors: Anna Micheluz, Eva Mariasole Angelin, Julia Sawitzki and Marisa Pamplona
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:4
  38. Conservation of cultural heritage is nowadays a very important aspect of our lives. Thanks to such legacy we gain knowledge about our ancestors, methods of production and ways of their life. The rapid developm...

    Authors: Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska, Marek Milosz, Pawel Powroznik and Edyta Lukasik
    Citation: Heritage Science 2022 10:3
  39. The cleaning or removal of manganese stains on Cultural Heritage has not been much tested or successful so far. The aim of this article was to assess a new green cleaning gel for Mn-rich black-blue stains on d...

    Authors: Bruno Campos, Alexandra Marco, Guilhermina Cadeco, David M. Freire-Lista, Joaquin Silvestre-Albero, Manuel Algarra, Eduarda Vieira, Manuela Pintado and Patrícia Moreira
    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:160

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