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  1. Most heritage buildings and monuments are constructed out of natural stones which suffer irrevocable degradation when undergoing wet weathering, bowing, and dissolution in outdoor conditions. Self-cleaning tre...

    Authors: Zaixin Xie, Zhuoqi Duan, Zhanqiang Zhao, Ruheng Li, Bao Zhou, Dequan Yang and Yongmao Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:122

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. Revealing the evolutionary history of the relationship between humans and Earth will help us understand the spatial and temporal distribution of ancient cultural sites (referred to as ancient sites). This rese...

    Authors: Litao Zhu, Zhengwei Li, Huimin Su and Xing Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:121

    Content type: Research article

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  3. A scrapbook compiled between 1660 and 1687 by Gesina ter Borch (1631–1690), a female artist from the small town of Zwolle in the Netherlands, contains an intriguing painting on paper of a full-length portrait ...

    Authors: Amélie Couvrat Desvergnes, Leila Sauvage, Jan de Hond, Paolo D’Imporzano and Matthias Alfeld

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:119

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Silo-cave is a unique human habitation form on the Loess Plateau in northern China, which consists of an excavated 6–7 m deep pit as the courtyard and cave dwellings in the surrounding four walls. This archite...

    Authors: Li Zhang, Peng Lu, Raymond Lau, Lijie Yan, Xiang Li, Ruixia Yang, Ho Hon Leung, Panpan Chen and Xia Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:118

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  5. For conservation and restoration purposes, the precious historical rubbings preserved in Wuyuan Museum were studied by multi-analytical techniques including 14C radiocarbon dating, scanning electron microscopy (S...

    Authors: Na Yao, Xiangsheng Zhan, Qinglin Ma and Shuya Wei

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:116

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Scientific analysis revealed the materials and techniques used in the process of making polychrome sculptures providing a solid foundation for the protection and restoration of the painted statues. In addition...

    Authors: Yongdong Tong, Youzhen Cai, Xuening Wang, Zhimin Li, Austin Nevin and Qinglin Ma

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:117

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  7. China has a deep traditional culture and a long history, and is rich in traditional settlements (designated as “Famous Historic-Cultural Villages/Towns”, “Chinese Traditional Villages” by Chinese Government). ...

    Authors: Zui Hu, Josef Strobl, Qingwen Min, Min Tan and Fulong Chen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:115

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:128

  8. The dolmen of Guadalperal (Spain) became well known in 2019 when the waters of the reservoir in which it had long been submerged became so depleted as to leave it above water and highly visible. This gave rise...

    Authors: Enrique Cerrillo-Cuenca, José Juan de Sanjosé Blasco, Primitiva Bueno-Ramírez, Juan Antonio Pérez-Álvarez, Rodrigo de Balbín Behrmann and Manuel Sánchez-Fernández

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:114

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  9. Using data from simulated and actual case studies, this paper assesses the accuracy and precision of Bayesian estimates for the constructional date of medieval masonry buildings, generated from the radiocarbon...

    Authors: Mark Thacker

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:113

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  10. The viability of fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) for the differentiation of red chalk drawing media was investigated, focusing on the group of drawings from the workshop of Giovanni Battista Piran...

    Authors: Maria Krämer, Ute Henniges, Irene Brückle, Laura Lenfant and Kirsten Drüppel

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:112

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Lightning strike is one of the natural disasters to the roof components of ancient buildings. To investigate the causes and damage effects of lightning strikes on the roofing glazed tiles of ancient buildings,...

    Authors: Jingxiao Li, Zhiling Fang, Lin Fu, Shangchen Fu, Lihua Shi, Yun Li and Peidong Huo

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:110

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  12. Several well-preserved polychrome lacquered coffins were found in Zhang Dong family’s tombs in Shaanxi, China, rare in the history of archaeological excavation. In the lacquered coffins, a large amount of dark...

    Authors: Lang Guo, Yaxu Zhang, Liqin Wang, Xing Zhao, Fuwei Yang, Meiman Peng, Jinyi Guo, Kun Li and Xiaomeng Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:109

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  13. Asbads (Persian windmills) present a multifaceted view of using heritage science. These mills are no longer in use due to advances in technology and the advent of new grinding systems. Windmills show perfect h...

    Authors: Mahsa Zarrabi and Nima Valibeig

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:108

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  14. Commonly exhibited in museum galleries, animal mummies have been the focus of interest of both visitors and researchers alike. The study of these animal remains not only provides new insights into embalming te...

    Authors: Diego Tamburini, Joanne Dyer, Marie Vandenbeusch, Matilde Borla, Debora Angelici, Maurizio Aceto, Cinzia Oliva, Federica Facchetti, Sara Aicardi, Patrizia Davit and Monica Gulmini

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:106

    Content type: Research article

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  15. We present reflectance transformation imaging (RTI) as a documentation tool for visualizing and recording the treatment of coins. RTI—a computational photograph technique that calculates light positions—allows...

    Authors: Jihyun Min, Sanghoon Jeong, Kangwoo Park, Yeonghwan Choi, Daewon Lee, Jaehong Ahn, Donghwan Har and Sangdoo Ahn

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:105

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  16. The effect of relative humidity (RH) and light on the development of epsomite (MgSO4·7H2O) in Winsor & Newton cadmium yellow (CY) and French ultramarine (FU) artists’ oil colour paints was investigated. Tube pain...

    Authors: Jessie Harrison, Judith Lee, Bronwyn Ormsby and David J. Payne

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:107

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  17. Having extremely high artistic, scientific and social values, earthen sites are widely distributed in China and are important human cultural relic resources. Due to accumulated natural erosions (from rain and ...

    Authors: Yumin Du, Wenwu Chen, Kai Cui, Wenqiang Dong, Shuai Zhang and Qiyong Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:103

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Jacques-Louis David’s (1748–1825) iconic portrait of Antoine Laurent Lavoisier (1743–1794) and Marie-Anne Lavoisier (Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, 1758–1836) has come to epitomize a modern couple born of the Enlig...

    Authors: Silvia A. Centeno, Dorothy Mahon, Federico Carò and David Pullins

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:84

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Space technology offers effective tools to monitor the status of World Natural Heritage sites. East Rennell Island, which covers approximately 37,000 hectares (ha) and a marine area extending three nautical mi...

    Authors: Sijia Huo, Mengmeng Wang, Guolong Chen, Huiqin Shu and Ruixia Yang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:101

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  20. Paintings and painted surfaces are considered to be extremely complex due to their multitude of materials and thus form the basis for particularly intricate Cultural Heritage studies. The combination of Scanni...

    Authors: E. Palamara, P. P. Das, S. Nicolopoulos, L. Tormo Cifuentes, E. Kouloumpi, A. Terlixi and N. Zacharias

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:100

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  21. Earthen cultural ruins and their subsurface environments act as carriers or support for aboveground cultural heritage artefacts, and groundwater has been identified as the most important factor accelerating th...

    Authors: Jing Cao, Bingjie Mai, Hua Chen, Yuhu Li and Juanli Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:99

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. Thirteen Zhou Dynasty bronze vessels and two slags from Zongyang County along the north bank of the Yangtze River in Anhui were analyzed by LA-MC-ICP-MS and EDXRF. The results of lead isotope analysis showed t...

    Authors: Yanjie Wang, Guofeng Wei, Qiang Li, Xiaoping Zheng and Danchun Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:97

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Korean hand papermaking is a renowned cultural tradition in the Korean peninsula. It is still practiced while scientific analysis of paper itself from a large data set is rare. In this study, a set of more tha...

    Authors: Bin Han, Léon-Bavi Vilmont, Hyoung-Jin Kim, Bertrand Lavédrine, Shouji Sakamoto and Michel Sablier

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:96

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. The Isabel II dam is a monumental hydraulic structure built in the middle of the nineteenth century in Spain. In this study, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry was used as a data acquisition techniqu...

    Authors: Patricio Martínez-Carricondo, Fernando Carvajal-Ramírez, Lourdes Yero-Paneque and Francisco Agüera-Vega

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:95

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. Many wooden Chinese historic buildings are destroyed due to the ravages of frequent fire disasters. The fire risk of historic buildings are highly enlarged since a long-time weathered wooden structures in the ...

    Authors: Wei Ke, Wanyu Yang, Biao Zhou, Kai Wang, Jiazhi Sun, Xukun Sun, Min Xu, Qingqing Chen, Bo Qiu, Wei Wang and Xuan Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to analyze textual sources from nomadic civilization. Linguistic analysis has been increasingly used due to the emergence of a huge array of autochthonous and au...

    Authors: Akmaral Ibrayeva, Assemgul Temirkhanova, Zaure Kartova, Tlegen Sadykov, Nurbolat Abuov and Anatoliy Pleshakov

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:90

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. An ancient table zither qin, an emblematic stringed instrument of traditional Chinese music, has been rediscovered in the museum collection of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (inv.4224, CNAM collec...

    Authors: Marie-Gabrielle Durier, Alexandre Girard-Muscagorry, Christine Hatté, Tiphaine Fabris, Cyrille Foasso, Witold Nowik and Stéphane Vaiedelich

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:89

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. A multianalytical approach was used to characterize the materials in the “Vienna Moamin”, an outstanding richly illustrated manuscript from the late thirteenth century, which was made in Italy and is now kept ...

    Authors: Wilfried Vetter, Bernadette Frühmann, Federica Cappa and Manfred Schreiner

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:87

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. The joint development of cultural heritage protection and tourism is an essential part of sustainable heritage tourism. Mount Lushan in China is such a site which in the past has had shortcomings in heritage p...

    Authors: Zhenrao Cai, Chaoyang Fang, Qian Zhang and Fulong Chen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:86

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:146

  30. Natural yellow plant dyes and traditional medicines were used widely on historical papers in ancient China for religious reasons and conservation considerations. This study aims to evaluate some traditional ye...

    Authors: Yanbing Luo and Xiujuan Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:85

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Decoration with feathers is a universal phenomenon in human history. Objects decorated with feathers were regarded as fine artworks and hence were enormously prized. In ancient China, dotting a surface with bl...

    Authors: An Gu, Na Wang, Yan-ju Kong, Jia-yu Hou, Gen Li and Yong Lei

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:82

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. A collection of pottery vessels uncovered during the first season of excavations in the Deh Dumen Bronze Age graveyard (the second half of the third millennium BC) located in south-western Iran were studied by...

    Authors: Omid Oudbashi, Reza Naseri, Giuseppe Cultrone, Isabel Egartner and Anna Arizzi

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:83

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Depicting the temporal and spatial evolution pattern of global world cultural heritage systematically and finely is the basis of heritage recognition and protection. In this study, 869 world cultural heritage ...

    Authors: Liang Yongqi, Yang Ruixia, Wang Pu, Yang Anlin and Chen Guolong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:80

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. Scratches on cine-film significantly affect the quality of projected film images forming blackness or brightness. Only blackness can be restored by restoration dispersion. However, why the scratches can or can...

    Authors: Qingmeng Xu, Feifan Xu and Daodao Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:129

  35. In this investigation on the mechanical behaviour of paint films, we use a new ferrule-top nanoindentation protocol developed for cultural heritage studies to examine the impact of repeated relative humidity v...

    Authors: Mathilde Tiennot, Davide Iannuzzi and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. Extending the life cycle of heritage buildings through their adaptive reuse can ensure their survival and is concordant with the policy of sustainable development. Selecting a new form of use for heritage buil...

    Authors: Grzegorz Śladowski, Bartłomiej Szewczyk, Krzysztof Barnaś, Olga Kania and Janusz Barnaś

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:76

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  37. The most important inhibitors used in bronze disease are BTA and AMT. While these inhibitors control corrosion, they are toxic and cancerous. In this study, the acacia fruit extract (200 ppm to 1800 ppm) was u...

    Authors: Vahid Pourzarghan and Bahman Fazeli-Nasab

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:75

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  38. According to various historic accounts and material evidence, the practice of producing lime mortars by mixing the quicklime with the sand (i.e. hot-mixing) before first slaking it with water was much more com...

    Authors: Cecilia Pesce, Martha C. Godina, Alison Henry and Giovanni Pesce

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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