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  1. Guangzhou Tongcao paintings in Qing Dynasty of China witnessed the exchange of economy, culture, art and technology between China and foreign countries, which were an important export product in historical China....

    Authors: Chan Zhang, Jianbin Huang, Tiequan Zhu and Rongling Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. This paper discusses results obtained from in situ analysis of the tesserae of the Roman mosaic of Los Amores (Cástulo site, Linares, Spain) dating back to the turn of the 1st to the 2nd century AD. Specifical...

    Authors: Alberto Sánchez, José Tuñón, Manuel Montejo, Pilar Amate, Bautista Ceprián, Anatasia Rousaki, Mafalda Costa, Delphine Saelens, Sylvia Lycke and Peter Vandenabeele

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:8

    Content type: Research article

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  3. The thermal environment and microclimate of heritage sites has been severely impacted by rapid urbanization. This study collected various meteorological measurement data as a reference for computational fluid ...

    Authors: Xiaoyu Wang, Peng Liu and Gongwen Xu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:7

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Shenzhen is a modern metropolis, but it hides a variety of valuable cultural heritage, such as ancient murals. How to effectively preserve and repair the murals is a worthy of discussion question. Here, we pro...

    Authors: Jiao Li, Huan Wang, Zhiqin Deng, Mingtao Pan and Honghai Chen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:6

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The aim of this study is to gain specific information on the water vapour interaction with archaeological and ethnographic birch bark. Water is involved in a number of curative and preventive conservation meas...

    Authors: Johanna Klügl and Giovanna Di Pietro

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:3

    Content type: Research article

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  6. With exquisite design and unique style, the painted sculptures of Tutang Buddha and two attendants Buddha in Jingyin Temple are precious cultural heritages of China. The sculpture of Tutang Buddha, which was c...

    Authors: Xiaojian Bai, Chen Jia, Zhigen Chen, Yuxuan Gong, Huwei Cheng and Jiayue Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:2

    Content type: Research article

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  7. In this study, we evaluated the ease of removal of soot layers from ancient wall paintings by employing double network gels as a controllable and safe cleaning method. The ceiling of the temple of Seti I (Abyd...

    Authors: Ehab Al-Emam, Abdel Ghafour Motawea, Joost Caen and Koen Janssens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:1

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The Hetian Bizili site in Lop County, located on the southern route of the Silk Road in Xinjiang, China, was a trade and cultural hub between the East and the West in ancient times. In 2016, a large number of ...

    Authors: Dong Wang, Rui Wen, Julian Henderson, Xingjun Hu and Wenying Li

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:127

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The formation of metal oxalates in paintings has recently gained a great deal of interest within the field of heritage science as several types of oxalate compounds have been identified in oil paintings. The p...

    Authors: Kim Pilkjær Simonsen, Josephine Niemann Poulsen, Frederik Vanmeert, Morten Ryhl-Svendsen, Jesper Bendix, Jana Sanyova, Koen Janssens and Francisco Mederos-Henry

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:126

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Establishing and understanding large format paintings are key to provide accurate information about the artist’s palette and developing conservation strategies. Therefore, investigating the artworks of a popul...

    Authors: Geraldine Conejo-Barboza, Eduardo Libby, Carmen Marín and O. A. Herrera-Sancho

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:125

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The recent discovery of the Sphinx Room, belonging to the Domus Aurea Esquiline wing, thanks to the framework given by the project “Non-destructive analytical studies at Parco Archeologico del Colosseo (Rome, Ita...

    Authors: Maria Cristina Caggiani, Alessia Coccato, Paolo Mazzoleni, Alessandro D’Alessio, Alfonsina Russo and Germana Barone

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:124

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The object of this study is a wide selection of dyed cotton and camelid samples from an important collection of 2000-year-old Paracas textiles, now at the Museo Nacional de Arqueología, Antropología e Historia...

    Authors: Francesca Sabatini, Martina Bacigalupo, Ilaria Degano, Anna Javér and Marei Hacke

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:122

    Content type: Research article

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  13. In this study, a painted beehive panel from the collection of the Slovene Ethnographic Museum was examined with respect to its material composition with the aim to reveal the painting technique. Due to the sta...

    Authors: Klara Retko, Maša Kavčič, Lea Legan, Polonca Ropret, Bojana Rogelj Škafar, Yingwang Gao, John Gilchrist, Matija Strlič and Irena Kralj Cigić

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:120

    Content type: Research article

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  14. In the previous paper (Part I), the colorimetry and interferometric microscopy measurements on modern gold leaf models have revealed that the visual appearance of a gilded surface, both burnished and unburnish...

    Authors: Qing Wu, Max Döbeli, Tiziana Lombardo, Katharina Schmidt-Ott, Benjamin Watts, Frithjof Nolting and David Ganz

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:119

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In the history of medieval gilding, a common view has been circulated for centuries that the substrate colour can influence the visual appearance of a gilded surface. In order to fully understand the correlati...

    Authors: Qing Wu, Meret Hauldenschild, Benedikt Rösner, Tiziana Lombardo, Katharina Schmidt-Ott, Benjamin Watts, Frithjof Nolting and David Ganz

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:118

    Content type: Research article

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  16. In this study, in order to analyze the materials and techniques used for the production of the inscribed plaques, multi-analytical scientific approach, including optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron micr...

    Authors: Liping Zheng, Liqin Wang, Xing Zhao, Jiali Yang, Mengxia Zhang and Yunfu Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:116

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Two mass spectrometry (MS) methods, solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME–GC–MS) and direct analysis in real time (DART-MS), have been explored to investigate widespread efflorescence observed o...

    Authors: Alba Alvarez-Martin, John George, Emily Kaplan, Lauren Osmond, Leah Bright, G. Asher Newsome, Rebecca Kaczkowski, Frederik Vanmeert, Gwénaëlle Kavich and Susan Heald

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:115

    Content type: Research article

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  18. A key issue in understanding artefacts from the past is the loss of readability of the signs they may have borne. The two 16th-century musical instruments studied here—rare Italian violins made by Andrea Amati (c...

    Authors: Marie Radepont, Jean-Philippe Échard, Matthias Ockermüller, Hortense de la Codre and Oulfa Belhadj

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:112

    Content type: Research article

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  19. This study focuses on the dye analysis of 26 ikat textiles present in the collection of the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and originally collected by Dr. Guido Goldman with the aim to gain additional information abou...

    Authors: Diego Tamburini, Eric Breitung, Chika Mori, Tomoko Kotajima, Matthew L. Clarke and Blythe McCarthy

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:114

    Content type: Research article

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  20. The restoration of incomplete artifacts is important for presenting the value of artifacts. Even though the existing methods provide rich solutions for the restoration of artifacts, they may not be the ultimat...

    Authors: Chengquan Qiao, Wenwen Zhang, Decai Gong and Yuxuan Gong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:110

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Variation in the trace element chemistry of cortical bone microstructure is delineated for interred and non-interred human femora. This was done to investigate the range of element concentrations that might oc...

    Authors: Kaare Lund Rasmussen, George R. Milner, Thomas Delbey, Lilian Skytte, Niels Lynnerup, Jørgen Lange Thomsen, Simone Schiavone, Marielva Torino, Lars Agersnap Larsen and Jesper Lier Boldsen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:111

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Bertoldo di Giovanni (ca. 1440–1491) was the primary sculptor and medal worker for Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449–1492). Despite being one of the most prominent Italian Renaissance artists working in Florence, ...

    Authors: Elena Basso, Federica Pozzi, Julia Day and Linda Borsch

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:109

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Tabia is one of the most widely used construction materials in ancient China. In this work, the tabia samples from three coastal defense fort sites at Zhejiang Province, China, we analyzed to determine their c...

    Authors: Cuisong Zhang, Bingjian Zhang, Biao Cui and Guocong Lin

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:108

    Content type: Research article

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  24. During a routine condition survey in 2007 at the Georgia O’Keeffe Museum in Santa Fe, micro-protrusions were found scattered across the surfaces of the artist’s oil paintings produced between 1920 and 1950. In...

    Authors: Annette S. Ortiz Miranda, Dale Kronkright and Marc Walton

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:107

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The strong lighting of the face against a dark background, the bold brushstroke and the model’s expressiveness that characterize Van Gogh’s Head of peasant, belonging to the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium ...

    Authors: Catherine Defeyt, Dominique Marechal, Francisca Vandepitte and David Strivay

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:104

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Since cleaning of artworks may cause undesirable physicochemical alterations and is a nonreversible procedure, it is mandatory to adopt the proper cleaning procedure. Such a procedure should remove undesired m...

    Authors: Ehab Al-Emam, Hilde Soenen, Joost Caen and Koen Janssens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:106

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Three-dimensional (3D) digital technology is an essential conservation method that complements the traditional restoration technique of cultural artifacts. In this study, 3D scanning, virtual restoration model...

    Authors: Young Hoon Jo, Seonghyuk Hong, Seong Yeon Jo and Yoon Mi Kwon

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:103

    Content type: Research article

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  28. This paper summarises the current state of knowledge related to scarf and splice carpentry joints in flexural elements, also providing some examples of tensile joints. Descriptions and characteristics of these...

    Authors: Anna Karolak, Jerzy Jasieńko and Krzysztof Raszczuk

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:105

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  29. This work investigated the techniques used for creating a three-dimensional stucco decoration. During the multidisciplinary project "The art and industry of Ticino plasterers from the sixteenth to the seventee...

    Authors: Marta Caroselli, Stefan Zumbühl, Giovanni Cavallo and Thierry Radelet

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:102

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  30. While the urban rail transit systems have been developed rapidly, the nearby heritage buildings and historic sites are facing possible threats of unexpected damages. In particular, a rail project has a potenti...

    Authors: Qian Wang, Changming Yang, Lin Tian, Jiguang Lu, Fengwen Wu and Jianyong An

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:100

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. The small panel of the ‘Crucifixion’ attributed to Giovanni (da Rimini) Baronzio is a perfect example of the artistic achievements of the so-called School of Rimini. Baronzio, active between 1320 and 1350, was...

    Authors: Svetlana Gasanova, Nikolas Bakirtzis, Dominique Levif-Martos and Sorin Hermon

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:99

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a novel, rapidly expanding diagnostic technique, which has been predominately developed in the context of contemporary biomedical research studies. In this review, we demonstrate ...

    Authors: George J. Tserevelakis, Paraskevi Pouli and Giannis Zacharakis

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:98

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  33. Microbubble disease observed in cellulose acetate microfilm is accompanied by the production of vinegar syndrome, which affects the image integrity. In the present study, samples of cellulose acetate microfilm...

    Authors: Zhihui Jia, Jing Li, Yuhu Li, Yunpeng Qi, Daodao Hu, Huiping Xing and Xiaolian Chao

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:97

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. In this paper different scenarios for back protection of a canvas painting and their effect on the stability of the relative humidity behind the painting are tested. A painting on canvas, stretched on a wooden...

    Authors: Tim Padfield, Nicolas Padfield, Daniel Sang-Hoon Lee, Anne Thøgersen, Astrid Valbjørn Nielsen, Cecil Krarup Andersen and Mikkel Scharff

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:96

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. The cathedral in Odense, Denmark, has for nine centuries held the relics of the Danish King St Canute the Holy and his brother Benedikt. They were both murdered in the predecessor church at the site in AD 1086...

    Authors: Poul Grinder-Hansen, Ulla Kjær, Morten Ryhl-Svendsen, Maria Perla Colombini, Ilaria Degano, Jacopo La Nasa, Francesca Sabatini, Johannes van der Plicht and Kaare Lund Rasmussen

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:95

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  36. An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.

    Authors: Ruth Ann Armitage, Daniel Fraser, Ilaria Degano and Maria Perla Colombini

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:94

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Heritage Science 2019 7:81

  37. Linqing brick is quite popular in Chinese history. Currently, identifying the origin of Linqing brick is an important issue to be studied in the field of archeology and architectural history in China. Hand-Hel...

    Authors: Zexuan Chen, Long Zhang, Feng Hou and Jialiang Xie

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:92

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Almost three hundred Spanish colonial missions—or their remains—are scattered over the vast state of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. A few of them still display painted decorations on the wood ceilings and walls...

    Authors: Edgar Casanova-González, Miguel Ángel Maynez-Rojas, Alejandro Mitrani, Isaac Rangel-Chávez, María Angélica García-Bucio, José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil and Karla Muñoz-Alcócer

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:91

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. As part of the NWO Science4Arts REVISRembrandt project (2012–2018), novel chemical imaging techniques were developed and applied to the study of Rembrandt’s late experimental painting technique (1651–1669). One o...

    Authors: A. van Loon, P. Noble, D. de Man, M. Alfeld, T. Callewaert, G. Van der Snickt, K. Janssens and J. Dik

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:90

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. The effects of environmental and conservation management scenarios on the permanence of the historical book collections housed at the Classense Library (Ravenna, Italy) were investigated. Non-destructive mater...

    Authors: Floriana Coppola, Natalie Brown, Floriana Amicucci, Matija Strlič and Alberto Modelli

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:89

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  41. An innovative survey was conducted of the collections of the historical Biblioteca Classense, located in the urban area of Ravenna (Northern Italy). The survey aimed to evaluate the current conservation state ...

    Authors: Natalie Brown, Floriana Coppola, Alberto Modelli, Floriana Amicucci, Dirk Lichtblau and Matija Strlič

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:88

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  42. The Buddhist sacred site of Taya Caves is a gem hidden underground in Yokohama, Japan. The caves were excavated and sculpted into bare rock by Shingon Buddhist monks from the Kamakura until the Edo period (thi...

    Authors: Luigi Germinario, Chiaki T. Oguchi, Yasuhiko Tamura, Sohyun Ahn and Momoko Ogawa

    Citation: Heritage Science 2020 8:87

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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