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  1. Many wooden Chinese historic buildings are destroyed due to the ravages of frequent fire disasters. The fire risk of historic buildings are highly enlarged since a long-time weathered wooden structures in the ...

    Authors: Wei Ke, Wanyu Yang, Biao Zhou, Kai Wang, Jiazhi Sun, Xukun Sun, Min Xu, Qingqing Chen, Bo Qiu, Wei Wang and Xuan Wang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:93

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  2. This article uses an interdisciplinary approach to analyze textual sources from nomadic civilization. Linguistic analysis has been increasingly used due to the emergence of a huge array of autochthonous and au...

    Authors: Akmaral Ibrayeva, Assemgul Temirkhanova, Zaure Kartova, Tlegen Sadykov, Nurbolat Abuov and Anatoliy Pleshakov

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:90

    Content type: Research article

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  3. An ancient table zither qin, an emblematic stringed instrument of traditional Chinese music, has been rediscovered in the museum collection of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (inv.4224, CNAM collec...

    Authors: Marie-Gabrielle Durier, Alexandre Girard-Muscagorry, Christine Hatté, Tiphaine Fabris, Cyrille Foasso, Witold Nowik and Stéphane Vaiedelich

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:89

    Content type: Research article

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  4. A multianalytical approach was used to characterize the materials in the “Vienna Moamin”, an outstanding richly illustrated manuscript from the late thirteenth century, which was made in Italy and is now kept ...

    Authors: Wilfried Vetter, Bernadette Frühmann, Federica Cappa and Manfred Schreiner

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:87

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The joint development of cultural heritage protection and tourism is an essential part of sustainable heritage tourism. Mount Lushan in China is such a site which in the past has had shortcomings in heritage p...

    Authors: Cai Zhenrao, Fang Chaoyang, Zhang Qian and Chen Fulong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:86

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Natural yellow plant dyes and traditional medicines were used widely on historical papers in ancient China for religious reasons and conservation considerations. This study aims to evaluate some traditional ye...

    Authors: Yanbing Luo and Xiujuan Zhang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:85

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Decoration with feathers is a universal phenomenon in human history. Objects decorated with feathers were regarded as fine artworks and hence were enormously prized. In ancient China, dotting a surface with bl...

    Authors: An Gu, Na Wang, Yan-ju Kong, Jia-yu Hou, Gen Li and Yong Lei

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:82

    Content type: Research article

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  8. A collection of pottery vessels uncovered during the first season of excavations in the Deh Dumen Bronze Age graveyard (the second half of the third millennium BC) located in south-western Iran were studied by...

    Authors: Omid Oudbashi, Reza Naseri, Giuseppe Cultrone, Isabel Egartner and Anna Arizzi

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:83

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Depicting the temporal and spatial evolution pattern of global world cultural heritage systematically and finely is the basis of heritage recognition and protection. In this study, 869 world cultural heritage ...

    Authors: Liang Yongqi, Yang Ruixia, Wang Pu, Yang Anlin and Chen Guolong

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:80

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Scratches on cine-film significantly affect the quality of projected film images forming blackness or brightness. Only blackness can be restored by restoration dispersion. However, why the scratches can or can...

    Authors: Qingmeng Xu, Feifan Xu, Hongjie Luo and Daodao Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:79

    Content type: Research article

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  11. In this investigation on the mechanical behaviour of paint films, we use a new ferrule-top nanoindentation protocol developed for cultural heritage studies to examine the impact of repeated relative humidity v...

    Authors: Mathilde Tiennot, Davide Iannuzzi and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:77

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Extending the life cycle of heritage buildings through their adaptive reuse can ensure their survival and is concordant with the policy of sustainable development. Selecting a new form of use for heritage buil...

    Authors: Grzegorz Śladowski, Bartłomiej Szewczyk, Krzysztof Barnaś, Olga Kania and Janusz Barnaś

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:76

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The most important inhibitors used in bronze disease are BTA and AMT. While these inhibitors control corrosion, they are toxic and cancerous. In this study, the acacia fruit extract (200 ppm to 1800 ppm) was u...

    Authors: Vahid Pourzarghan and Bahman Fazeli-Nasab

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:75

    Content type: Research article

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  14. According to various historic accounts and material evidence, the practice of producing lime mortars by mixing the quicklime with the sand (i.e. hot-mixing) before first slaking it with water was much more com...

    Authors: Cecilia Pesce, Martha C. Godina, Alison Henry and Giovanni Pesce

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:72

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Historical costumes are part of cultural heritage. Unlike architectural monuments, they are very fragile, which exacerbates the problems of their protection and popularisation. A big help in this can be the di...

    Authors: Jerzy Montusiewicz, Marek Miłosz, Jacek Kęsik and Kamil Żyła

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:74

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The Great Wall of China is one of the largest architectural heritage sites globally, and its sustainability is a significant concern. However, its large extent and diverse characteristics are challenges for de...

    Authors: Hang Xu, Fulong Chen and Wei Zhou

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:71

    Content type: Research article

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  17. A multi-analytical study was designed to characterise historical coated plaster surfaces. The method was applied to investigate the surface coatings of the nineteenth-century plaster cast of the tombstone of t...

    Authors: Valentina Risdonne, Charlotte Hubbard, Johanna Puisto and Charis Theodorakopoulos

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:70

    Content type: Research article

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  18. While the chemistry of artists’ paints has previously been studied and reviewed, these studies only capture a portion of the properties affecting the response of paint materials. The mechanical properties of a...

    Authors: Gwen dePolo, Marc Walton, Katrien Keune and Kenneth R. Shull

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:68

    Content type: Review

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  19. The paper discusses a recent find of a copper alloy light cannon discovered at the Old Castle in Grodno, Belarus. The research aim was to analyse the artefact in all its possible aspects, including archaeologi...

    Authors: Grzegorz Żabiński, Piotr Strzyż, Tomasz Goryczka, Krzysztof Aniołek and Ewelina Miśta-Jakubowska

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:67

    Content type: Research article

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  20. In this study we investigate the impact of the addition of colourless glass particles to red glazes, as seen in many 15th-17th-century easel paintings. With the use of reconstructions, we examined the influenc...

    Authors: Mitra Almasian, Mathilde Tiennot, Lionel D. Fiske and Erma Hermens

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:66

    Content type: Research article

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  21. From the mid-1800s to the late 1960s, conservation by alum salts (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O—potassium aluminium sulphate), using various recipes, was a common method to prevent shrinkage and to strengthen waterlogged archa...

    Authors: Jeannette Jacqueline Łucejko, Caitlin M. A. McQueen, Malin Sahlstedt, Francesca Modugno, Maria Perla Colombini and Susan Braovac

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  22. The Gongsanseong Fortress in Gongju, Republic of Korea, is one of the most essential remains for historical research of Baekje Kingdom, and reinforces on the fortress wall has continuously been implemented sin...

    Authors: Jun Hyoung Park, Seok Tae Park and Chan Hee Lee

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:65

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  23. Over the last few years, the Federal Institute for material research (BAM, Berlin) together with the Centre for the Study of Manuscript Cultures (CSMC, University of Hamburg) have initiated a systematic materi...

    Authors: Tea Ghigo and María Jesús Albarrán Martínez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:62

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Glass beads excavated from Nanhai I shipwreck were investigated with scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM–EDS), Raman spectroscopy, multi-collector inductively coupled plasma m...

    Authors: Chenxin Tian, Yihang Zhou, Kai Wang, Jian Sun, Yong Cui and Dongbo Hu

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:61

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  25. This work concerns the study of colors and dyes identified on archaeological textiles from the Atacama Desert. The different garments and ornaments come from the excavation of two important pre-Columbian cemet...

    Authors: Marcela Sepúlveda, Cecilia Lemp Urzúa, José Cárcamo-Vega, Edgar Casanova-Gónzalez, Sebastián Gutiérrez, Miguel Ángel Maynez-Rojas, Benjamín Ballester and José Luis Ruvalcaba-Sil

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:59

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Based on the research results and practical engineering experience pertaining to the protection and reinforcement of the cliff of the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, China, this paper presents a method that is mai...

    Authors: Xudong Wang, Yanwu Wang, Qinglin Guo, Qiangqiang Pei and Guojing Zhao

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:58

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  27. The growing importance of publishing art collections online has led to increasingly strict tolerances on digital photography of art objects. There are two internationally recognized sets of guidelines for crea...

    Authors: Eric Kirchner, Carola van Wijk, Henni van Beek and Tammo Koster

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Silver art is an important feature of the Tang dynasty in China and the manufacturing center for silver shifted from north to south after the mid-eighth century CE. The typology, stylistics, and iconography of...

    Authors: Panpan Tan, Junchang Yang and Xinlai Ren

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  29. Tsantsas, commonly referred to as “shrunken heads”, are unique and valuable antiquities that were produced by the Shuar, Achuar, Awajún/Aguaruna, Wampís/Huambisa, and Candoshi-Shampra (SAAWC) peoples until the mi...

    Authors: Craig D. Byron, Adam M. Kiefer, Joanna Thomas, Sagar Patel, Amy Jenkins, Anthony L. Fratino and Todd Anderson

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:50

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Heritage Science 2021 9:60

  30. The Huexotzinco Codex is one of the earliest surviving manuscripts from the early colonial period of Mexico. The codex pertains to the legal case of conquistador Hernán Cortés and contains paintings and docume...

    Authors: Tana Elizabeth Villafana, Mary Elizabeth Haude and Amanda Satorius

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:54

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. This study researches the loyalty of travelers to destinations which include material cultural heritage. It analyzes the loyalty of visitors to a destination with cultural heritage sites in order to provide re...

    Authors: Ricardo David Hernández-Rojas, Juan Antonio Jimber del Río, Alberto Ibáñez Fernández and Arnaldo Vergara-Romero

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:52

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  32. Iron gall ink was used in the Western world as a permanent writing material already in late Roman times and throughout the Middle Ages, until it became obsolete in the twentieth century. There is much interest...

    Authors: A. Lerf, F. E. Wagner, M. Dreher, T. Espejo and J.-L. Pérez-Rodríguez

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:49

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  33. Technology employed by the ancient goldsmiths is traceable through archaeometallurgy. Using non-destructive analytical methods, namely, a 3D digital microscopy and a scanning electron microscopy with energy di...

    Authors: Yan Liu, Rui Li, Junchang Yang, Ruiliang Liu, Guoxing Zhao and Panpan Tan

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:46

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  34. In this paper, a comparative study was conducted on the extraction effects of six agents for collagen-based mural painting binders. These agents were used to extract the residual proteins in the non-aged and t...

    Authors: Jianghao Du, Zhanyun Zhu, Junchang Yang, Jia Wang and Xiaotong Jiang

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:45

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  35. Salt weathering is one of the most important causes of deterioration in the built environment. Two crucial aspects need further investigation to understand the processes and find suitable measures: the impact ...

    Authors: Sebastiaan Godts, Scott Allan Orr, Julie Desarnaud, Michael Steiger, Katrin Wilhelm, Hilde De Clercq, Veerle Cnudde and Tim De Kock

    Citation: Heritage Science 2021 9:44

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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